β3-tubulin, β-tubulin, β3 tubulin, β3, tubulin
beta Tubulin60D - microtubular cytoskeleton - transiently expressed in the embryo - higher pupal levels in the developing musculature - Adult expression confined to specific somatic cells in the gonads
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.
454 (aa); 53 (kD predicted)
Used as a cell marker for the entire myoblast
population and can be followed into all somatic muscle fibers.
Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\βTub60D using the Feature Mapper tool.
βTub60D is expressed in the scolopidial dendritic cap cells of stage 17 embryos. Expression is not observed in these cells earlier, nor in the cap cells of third instar larvae.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\βTub60D in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: βTub60D CG3401
The syncytial visceral and somatic musculature develops independently of βTub60D during Drosophila embryogenesis.
Myogenesis and sarcomere integrity are normal in mutant larvae and embryos, somatic muscle functions normally. Midgut morphology and gut function are defective, but visceral muscle functions normally.
βTub60D gene in Kc cells has the same structure as the gene in intact Drosophila. The gene encodes two isoforms with one amino acid difference. Gene expression is regulated by the steroid hormone 20-OHE in a time and hormonal concentration-dependent fashion, without requirement of protein synthesis.
A 360bp intronic regulatory fragment that carries several ecdysone responsive elements has been identified.
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) of ultraviolet (UV) light induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are assayed in Kc cells that respond to steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment by induction of βTub60D expression, βTub60D is not expressed under standard culture conditions.
Analysis of the regulatory capacities of the intron in βTub60D revealed 6 redundant cis-acting elements, which act at different developmental stages in the same mesodermal derivatives, and that the visceral mesoderm has anterior-posterior graded early action of an enhancer regulator. The pattern of βTub60D expression is sensitive to Ubx : ectopic Ubx expression causes activity of enhancer in entire visceral mesoderm.
βTub60D can support only a subset of the multiple functions normally performed by βTub85D. Coexpression of βTub60D and βTub85D in the male germ line allows spindles and all classes of cytoplasmic microtubules to assemble and function normally. However when βTub60D exceeds 20% of the total testis β-tubulin pool it acts in a dominant way to disrupt normal axoneme assembly.
The first intron of the βTub60D carries a tissue specific enhancer element that is required for expression in the visceral muscles that can also efficiently function positioned downstream.