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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\βTub60D
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
β-Tubulin at 60D
Annotation Symbol
CG3401
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003888
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
β3-tubulin, β-tubulin, β3 tubulin, β3, tubulin
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:24,305,881..24,313,099 [+]
Recombination map
2-106
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the tubulin family. (P08841)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BETA TUBULINS -
Tubulins are cytoskeletal proteins. α- and β-tubulin heterodimers polymerise to form microtubules, the roles of which include mechanical strength, intracellular trafficking and chromosome segregation. (Adapted from PMID:1121746).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
(UniProt, P08841)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
βTub60D (β3t)
A structural gene for β-tubulin. The mRNA first appears in the mesoderm during mid-embryogenesis at about the time when synthesis of β-tubulin begins and later disappears from the embryo when synthesis of the tubulin ends; the transcript reappears in the mesoderm during the pupal period (Raff et al., 1982; Natzle and McCarthy, 1984; Raff, 1984; Rudolph et al., 1987; Gasch et al., 1988; Kimble et al., 1989). During embryogenesis, βTub60C is only expressed in developing muscles; in pupae, it is expressed in adult muscles, imaginal discs, wing blades, optic lobes, ovaries and testes, but ceases (except in ovaries and testes) in adults. As compared to the tubulin encoded by βTub56D, the product of βTub60C is but a minor component of the total tubulin pool (Rudolph et al., 1987). When synthesis of the βTub60C tubulin begins in the embryo, α-Tubulin synthesis is increased (Raff et al., 1982).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
beta Tubulin60D - microtubular cytoskeleton - transiently expressed in the embryo - higher pupal levels in the developing musculature - Adult expression confined to specific somatic cells in the gonads
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\βTub60D or the JBrowse view of Dmel\βTub60D for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072270
2518
454
FBtr0343443
2515
453
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.6 (northern blot)
1.362 (sequence analysis)
2.5 (northern blot)
2.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072177
50.8
454
4.51
FBpp0310087
50.8
453
4.51
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
454 (aa); 53 (kD predicted)
Comments
Used as a cell marker for the entire myoblast population and can be followed into all somatic muscle fibers.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.
(UniProt, P08841)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\βTub60D using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003008, InterPro:IPR008280
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-10 hr AEL

Comment: reference states 9-15 hr AEL

radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
βTub60D is expressed in the scolopidial dendritic cap cells of stage 17 embryos. Expression is not observed in these cells earlier, nor in the cap cells of third instar larvae.
The expression pattern of βTub60D protein is excluded from en expressing cells.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{AI15.2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{β3/lac-6.0}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{β3/lac-6.0c}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{β3/lac-6.0cDI}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{β3/lac-6.0I}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{βTub60D-0.23I}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{βTub60D-2D}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{βTub60D-2U}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{βTub60D-13}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{βTub60D-14}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{βTub60D-15}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{βTub60D-16}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
chordotonal organ

Comment: expression not present in mesoderm

Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{WHL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\βTub60D in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of βTub60D
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of βTub60D
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
chordotonal organ & microtubule (with Df(2R)Px2)
medulla & axon (with βTub60D1)
medulla & axon (with βTub60D4)
photoreceptor cell R7 & axon (with βTub60D1)
photoreceptor cell R7 & axon (with βTub60D4)
photoreceptor cell R8 & axon (with βTub60D1)
photoreceptor cell R8 & axon (with βTub60D4)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (11)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (9)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (7)
5 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
9 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907JT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915052F )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04SO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04HG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G06U2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
7 of 10
7 of 10
7 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.
    (UniProt, P08841 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-106
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:24,305,881..24,313,099 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    60C6-60C6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Nop60Bk05318 and P{PZ}bs03267&P{lacW}l(2)k10502k10502
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    60C7-60C8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    60C-60C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (259)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: βTub60D CG3401
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    The syncytial visceral and somatic musculature develops independently of βTub60D during Drosophila embryogenesis.
    bap and bin are required for activation of βTub60D in the visceral mesoderm.
    The expression of βTub60D in several embryonic sense organs makes sense of the behavioral defects of pre-lethal βTub60D mutant larvae.
    The vm1 enhancer of the βTub60D gene contains a complex array of elements that are involved in transactivation by a combination of tissue- and position- specific factors including tin and Ubx.
    βTub60D is directly repressed by en protein. The first intron of the βTub60D locus contains several en protein binding sites.
    Myogenesis and sarcomere integrity are normal in mutant larvae and embryos, somatic muscle functions normally. Midgut morphology and gut function are defective, but visceral muscle functions normally.
    βTub60D is the major isoform in embryonic muscle of D.melanogaster and muscle expression of the homolog is conserved in D.simulans and D.virilis.
    Ecdysteroid-regulated gene.
    βTub60D gene in Kc cells has the same structure as the gene in intact Drosophila. The gene encodes two isoforms with one amino acid difference. Gene expression is regulated by the steroid hormone 20-OHE in a time and hormonal concentration-dependent fashion, without requirement of protein synthesis.
    A 360bp intronic regulatory fragment that carries several ecdysone responsive elements has been identified.
    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) of ultraviolet (UV) light induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are assayed in Kc cells that respond to steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment by induction of βTub60D expression, βTub60D is not expressed under standard culture conditions.
    Analysis of the regulatory capacities of the intron in βTub60D revealed 6 redundant cis-acting elements, which act at different developmental stages in the same mesodermal derivatives, and that the visceral mesoderm has anterior-posterior graded early action of an enhancer regulator. The pattern of βTub60D expression is sensitive to Ubx : ectopic Ubx expression causes activity of enhancer in entire visceral mesoderm.
    βTub60D can support only a subset of the multiple functions normally performed by βTub85D. Coexpression of βTub60D and βTub85D in the male germ line allows spindles and all classes of cytoplasmic microtubules to assemble and function normally. However when βTub60D exceeds 20% of the total testis β-tubulin pool it acts in a dominant way to disrupt normal axoneme assembly.
    βTub60D is essential for viability and fertility.
    The first intron of the βTub60D carries a tissue specific enhancer element that is required for expression in the visceral muscles that can also efficiently function positioned downstream.
    The expression of βTub60D is accompanied by a coordinate transient increase in the level of synthesis of the embryonic α-tubulins, thereby maintaining an approximately equimolar synthesis of α and β-tubulins throughout embryogenesis.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 59 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (67)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    β-Tub60D
    β60C
    β3 tubulin
    β3-tubulin
    βTub3
    Name Synonyms
    60C β tubulin
    Beta tubulin
    beta tubulin
    beta-3 Tubulin
    beta-3-tubulin
    beta3-Tubulin
    betaTub60D
    β-3 tubulin
    β-3tubulin
    β-Tubulin at 60A
    β-Tubulin at 60D
    β-tubulin 60D
    β-tubulin at 60D
    β-tubulin60D
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (275)