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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\βTub85D
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
β-Tubulin at 85D
Annotation Symbol
CG9359
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003889
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

β-tubulin, β2-tubulin, B2t, β2 tubulin, β2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:9,408,383..9,410,282 [-]
Recombination map

3-48

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:9408383..9410282
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the tubulin family. (P61857)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BETA TUBULINS -
Tubulins are cytoskeletal proteins. α- and β-tubulin heterodimers polymerise to form microtubules, the roles of which include mechanical strength, intracellular trafficking and chromosome segregation. (Adapted from PMID:1121746).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
(UniProt, P61857)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
βTub85D (β2t)
A structural gene for β-tubulin. It is transcribed into mRNA that is testis-specific; the mRNA is translated into a β-tubulin subunit that is involved in the formation of microtubules in the sperm tail axoneme, the cytoplasmic microtubules, and the meiotic spindle (Kemphues et al., 1982; Fuller et al., 1988). Only the microtubules of the mitotic spindle are not affected by a null mutation in βTub85D. The first mutant discovered, βTub85DD (Kemphues et al., 1979, 1980, 1982, 1983), codes in males for an electrophoretic variant of β2-tubulin that causes disruption of microtubule function in all stages of spermatogenesis (beginning with meiosis) and shows abnormal spindle formation, abnormal chromosome movement, and no cytokinesis. This phenotype is expressed in males in both homo- and heterozygotes; mutants heterozygous over wild type contain both wild-type and mutant β2-tubulins; mutants over a deficiency for the locus contain only mutant β2-tubulin. Severity of effect on meiosis is as follows: βTub85DD/βTub85DD > βTub85DD/+ > βTub85DD/+/+, the first two genotypes being sterile and the last weakly fertile. All females are fertile. Chromosome replication and condensation appear normal. Recessive male-sterile mutations have also been induced, two of them in βTub85DD chromosomes and the rest in βTub85D+ chromosomes. Testes of flies homozygous for the recessives βTub85D3, βTub85D4, βTub85DDrv1, and βTub85DDrv2 synthesize, but later degrade, both α-Tubulin and β-tubulin and show abnormalities in meiotic divisions, nuclear shaping, and formation of the flagellar axoneme (Kemphues et al., 1982, 1983; Fuller, 1986). The most extreme recessive allele, βTub85Dn, is male sterile but female fertile when homozygous (Fuller et al., 1988); heterozygotes raised at 25 are male fertile, but those raised at 18 are male sterile. Recessive alleles βTub85D6 - βTub85D10 seem to accumulate normal amounts of β-tubulin but the β-tubulin subunits are defective. βTub85D6, βTub85D7, and βTub85D8 cause different defects in spermatogenesis. βTub85D8 is unable to form normal closed microtubules (Fuller et al., 1987); in homozygous males it is defective in meiosis, nuclear shaping, and flagellar elongation. This allele is semi-dominant; heterozygous males with one normal and one abnormal tubulin subunit, form some functional sperm. Transheterozygotes between ms(3)nc (second site non-complementing) mutations and certain βTub85D alleles are male sterile even if wild-type copies of both genes are present (Fuller, 1986); a deletion of a ms(3)nc mutation in a heterozygote over βTub85Dn, however, is fertile in males.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

ß Tubulin85D - sperm tubulin - ß1 tubulin is found in mitotically active germ cells and all somatic parts of the testis - starting with early spermatocytes, the ß1 isotype is switched off and all microtubular arrays contain ß2 tubulin.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\βTub85D or the JBrowse view of Dmel\βTub85D for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082046
1841
446
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.338 (sequence analysis)

2.0, 1.8 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081524
49.9
446
4.45
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

446 (aa); 55 (kD predicted)

Comments

Polypeptides were identified in wing imaginal discs and in the CME W2 wing imaginal disc cell line by 2D gel electrophoresis and by microsequencing.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

(UniProt, P61857)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\βTub85D using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003008, InterPro:IPR008280
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:if; FB:FBgn0001250
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:mew; FB:FBgn0004456
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000172598
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-3 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

βTub85D is expressed in the circular visceral mesoderm and in the somatic mesoderm throughout embryogenesis.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Mut1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\βTub85D in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of βTub85D
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of βTub85D
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
meiotic cell cycle & spindle | male
spermatid & nucleus
spermatozoon & axoneme
spindle & meiotic cell cycle | male
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (24)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
7 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
7 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (17)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (20)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
No
5 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (26)
8 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
No
7 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (16)
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
6 of 9
No
No
6 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
10 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190889 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500LC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00GJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04HG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G06U2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
8 of 10
6 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.
    (UniProt, P61857 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-48

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:9,408,383..9,410,282 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    85D15-85D15
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)L4092L4092 and P{PZ}ps10615&P{PZ}Ras85D06677
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Notes

    βTub85D6 maps to 48.45 +/- 0.2. βTub85D7 maps to 48.57 +/- 0.16. βTub85D8 maps to 48.54 +/- 0.16.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (24)
    Genomic Clones (14)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (55)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    When Hvir\βt is coexpressed with βTub85D the moth isoform imposed the 16-protofilament structure, characteristic of that found in moth, on the corresponding subset of microtubules, which normally contain only 13-protofilament microtubules. This demonstrates the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton can be directed by a component of β-tubulin.

    Sequence information in the internal variable region is important for morphological development of the axoneme microtubules. This domain acts in concert with the variable C-terminus and both are involved in determining some of the functional properties that are unique to a given β-tubulin isoform.

    The correct tubulin protein levels in the male germ cells is investigated.

    Analysis of truncated βTub85D products reveals that the carboxy terminus is required for the organization of microtubule suprastructures in spermatogenesis.

    An 18bp element, DE1 (downstream element 1), present in the 5' untranslated region of βTub85D is required for enhanced mRNA stability during spermiogenesis. The function of this element is autonomous and is transferable also on other mRNAs.

    Identified in 2D gels of CMW W2 wing imaginal disc cell proteins.

    Altered pattern of βTub85D gene expression in neurogenic mutants indicates a role for the neurogenic genes in the development of most visceral and somatic muscles.

    The distribution of βTub56D, βTub60D and βTub85D proteins in the testes has been analysed.

    A 14bp promoter element required for testis-specific βTub85D expression has been investigated using βTub85D-Ecol\lacZ regulatory fusion constructs.

    P-element mediated transformation studies suggest that βTub60D can support only a subset of the multiple functions normally performed by βTub85D. Coexpression of βTub60D and βTub85D in the male germ line allows spindles and all classes of cytoplasmic microtubules to assemble and function normally. However when βTub60D exceeds 20% of the total testis β-tubulin pool it acts in a dominant way to disrupt normal axoneme assembly.

    An allele of αTub84B has been identified due to second site non-complementation of alleles (including a null allele) of βTub85D. The genetic interaction between βTub85D and αTub84B is based on the structural interaction between the protein products of each gene.

    Sequences required for the testis-specific expression of βTub85D have been investigated using βTub85D-Ecol\lacZ fusion constructs.

    The degree of homology between βTub85D and βTub56D is high and there is complete sequence conservation in the βTub85D proteins of D.melanogaster and D.hydei.

    Tubulins are the main structural components of microtubules in mitotic and meiotic spindles, cilia, flagella, neural processes and the cytoskeleton; nontubulin proteins (MAPS or microtubule-associated proteins) are involved along with tubulins in the formation of specialized microtubules (Theurkauf, Baum, Bo and Wensink, 1986; Rudolph, Kimble, Hoyle, Subler and Raff, 1987). Tubulin proteins are found in a wide variety of species from unicellular organisms to man; their biochemical and molecular structure is highly conserved. The α- and β-subunits from different organisms can be combined in vitro into hybrid microtubule structures and there is a high level of primary amino acid sequence identity in the proteins (Sanchez, Natzle, Cleveland, Kirschner and McCarthy, 1980; Raff, 1984). In D.melanogaster, two multigene families, each made up of four members, code for α- and β-tubulins, each tubulin subunit being a 55,000 dalton polypeptide. The tubulin genes in each multigene family are dispersed in the second and/or third chromosomes rather than arranged in clusters. βTub85D is a structural gene for β-tubulin. It is transcribed into mRNA that is testis-specific; the mRNA is translated into a β-tubulin subunit that is involved in the formation of microtubules in the sperm tail axoneme, the cytoplasmic microtubules and the meiotic spindle (Kemphues, Kaufman, Raff and Raff, 1982; Fuller, Caulton, Hutchens, Kaufman and Raff, 1988). Only the microtubules of the mitotic spindle are not affected by a null mutation in βTub85D. The first mutant discovered, βTub85DD (Kemphues Raff, Kaufman and Raff, 1979; Kemphues, Raff, Raff and Kaufman, 1980; Kemphues, Kaufman, Raff and Raff, 1982; Kemphues, Kaufman, Raff and Raff, 1983), codes in males for an electrophoretic variant of β2-tubulin that causes disruption of microtubule function in all stages of spermatogenesis (beginning with meiosis) and shows abnormal spindle formation, abnormal chromosome movement and no cytokinesis. This phenotype is expressed in males in both homo- and heterozygotes; mutants heterozygous over wild type contain both wild-type and mutant β2-tubulins; mutants over a deficiency for the locus contain only mutant β2-tubulin. Severity of effect on meiosis is as follows: βTub85DD/βTub85DD > βTub85DD/+ > βTub85DD/+/+, the first two genotypes being sterile and the last weakly fertile. All females are fertile. Chromosome replication and condensation appear normal. Recessive male-sterile mutations have also been induced, two of them in βTub85DD chromosomes and the rest in βTub85D+ chromosomes. Testes of flies homozygous for the recessives βTub85D3, βTub85D4, βTub85DDrv1, and βTub85DDrv2 synthesize, but later degrade, both α-tubulin and β-tubulin and show abnormalities in meiotic divisions, nuclear shaping, and formation of the flagellar axoneme (Kemphues, Kaufman, Raff and Raff, 1982; Kemphues, Kaufman, Raff and Raff, 1983; Fuller, 1986). The most extreme recessive allele, βTub85Dn, is male sterile but female fertile when homozygous (Fuller, Caulton, Hutchens, Kaufman and Raff, 1988); heterozygotes raised at 25oC are male fertile, but those raised at 18oC are male sterile. Recessive alleles βTub85D6 - βTub85D10 seem to accumulate normal amounts of β-tubulin but the β-tubulin subunits are defective. βTub85D6, βTub85D7 and βTub85D8 cause different defects in spermatogenesis. βTub85D8 is unable to form normal closed microtubules (Fuller, Caulton, Hutchens, Kaufman and Raff, 1987); in homozygous males it is defective in meiosis, nuclear shaping, and flagellar elongation. This allele is semidominant; heterozygous males with one normal and one abnormal tubulin subunit, form some functional sperm. Transheterozygotes between ms(3)nc (second site non-complementing) mutations and certain βTub85D alleles are male sterile even if wild-type copies of both genes are present (Fuller, 1986); a deletion of a ms(3)nc mutation in a heterozygote over βTub85Dn, however, is fertile in males.

    Origin and Etymology
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    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (50)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    ms(3)KKD
    β85D
    β2-tubulin
    βTub2
    Name Synonyms
    Beta tubulin
    beta 2 tubulin
    beta tubulin
    beta-Tubulin 85D
    beta-Tubulin at 85D
    testis-specific β-tubulin
    β-Tubulin at 85D
    β2-Tubulin
    βTubulin85D
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
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      References (234)