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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ptc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
patched
Annotation Symbol
CG2411
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003892
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
patched (ptc) is a segment polarity gene that encodes a 12-pass transmembrane protein involved in Hh signalling regulation. ptc product contributes to the binding, internalization and degradation of the ligand encoded by hh, limiting its activity spatial range. ptc product also represses the constitutive signaling activity of the transmembrane protein encoded by smo. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20]
Also Known As
tuf, rubr, Ptch
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:8,649,649..8,665,223 [+]
Recombination map
2-59
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the patched family. (P18502)
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulation the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Gene Group (FlyBase)
UNCLASSIFIED TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS -
Cell surface transmembrane receptors bind ligands to elicit a cellular response.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Segmentation polarity protein. Acts as a receptor for the hedgehog protein (HH). Associates with the smoothened protein (SMO) to transduce the hedgehog signal leading to the activation of wingless, decapentaplegic and patched itself. Participates in cell interactions that establish pattern within the segment and the imaginal disks during development. In the absence of HH, represses the constitutive signaling activity of smo through fused (FU).
(UniProt, P18502)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
tuf: tufted
The tuf gene is involved in patterning within segments in Drosophila. The viable first-identified mutant has a small tuft of hairs between eyes and antennae and shows basal twinning of the anterior halves of wings; it overlaps wild type. tuf/T(2;3)dp has an extreme form of this mutant phenotype. Other mutants are embryonic lethals of the segment-polarity type. There is a mirror-image duplication of segment boundaries and adjacent cuticle of all segments with deletion of the remainder of the segment. Defect visible during extended-germ-band stage (6 hr) (Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980). Normal number of denticle bands; duplicated region of embryo includes some naked cuticle anterior to denticle bands. Pattern of neurons underlying affected epidermal region is altered (Patel, Schafer, Goodman, and Holmgren, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 890-904). This mutant has no effect on the spatial expression of the "pair-rule" mutant ftz (Carroll and Scott, 1986). tuf embryos cultured in vivo produced derivatives of the eye-antennal and thoracic discs, the latter being abnormal in morphology and in en expression (Simcox, Roberts, Hersperger, Gribbon, Shearn, and Whittle, 1989, Development 107: 715-22).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transmembrane protein - segment polarity gene - receptor for Hedgehog - The reception and transduction of the HH signal is mediated by its receptor Patched and by Smoothened - PTC and HH control SMO by regulating its stability, trafficking, and phosphorylation - SMO in turn interacts directly with Fused and Costal2, which interact with each other and with Cubitus interruptus in an intracellular Hedgehog transducing complex
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ptc or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ptc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089427
5521
1286
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088443
142.8
1286
8.08
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1286 (aa); 143 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ptc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (27 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ihog; FB:FBgn0031872
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:CG5504; FB:FBgn0002174
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Sxl; FB:FBgn0264270
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000847539
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000847539
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000847539
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Su(fu); FB:FBgn0005355
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hh; FB:FBgn0004644
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Smurf; FB:FBgn0029006
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000847539
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with fusome
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002916954
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
In the trunk ectoderm of stage 11 embryos, ptc expression is confined to two ectodermal stripes in each parasegment, one on either side of the hh stripe. In the visual primordium, ptc is present only in anterior optic lobe cells adjacent to the posterior optic lobe. ptc is also expressed in tracheal pits and most prominently in the anterior part of the pits.
Transcript is detected in 5 cell widths at the A/P boundary in third instar wing discs. However, expression is excluded from the D/V boundary that will form the wing margin.
In wghs.PN embryos, 3 hours after the last shock, the ptc domain becomes confined to those cells that do not express en. The anterior border of the ptc stripe coincides with the deep groove that marks the posterior limit of the broadened en stripe. This is a similar expression pattern to that found in nkd mutant embryos.
ptc transcripts are expressed predominantly in early embryos with lower levels in late embryos, larvae, and pupae. They are first detected at nuclear cycle 14 and are present throughout the cortical region of the embryo except for a dorsal anterior patch and a posterior patch including the pole cells. From gastrulation through mid-germband extension they are uniformly distributed. By the end of stage 8, a pattern of 15 stripes develops with expression also observed in the hindgut/analia and in the labrum. During the extended germ band stage, each broad stripe splits into two stripes. The cells in the middle of the original stripes no longer express ptc. Expression is also seen in various regions of the head, CNS, mesoderm, and around the incipient Malphigian tubules. The regions of expression in each segment were mapped to the anterior-most cells of every segment and the posterior cells of every parasegment.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ptc is found in a large number of axon tracts. It is present in the dendritic fibers of the mushroom body calyx and Kenyon cells but not in the rest of the mushroom body. It is also observed in nerve fibers of the antennal lobe, anntennal nerve bundle, and secondary projections of the retina and several other structures.
ptc protein is expressed at similar levels in wing and haltere discs.
Protein is detected in 5 cell widths at the A/P boundary in third instar wing discs. However, expression is excluded from the D/V boundary that will form the wing margin. margin.
Protein is detected in portions of the eye-antennal disc that will form the head capsule.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with fusome
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}ptcH84
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}ptc559.1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}ptcCwh1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}ptcNP3253
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZ}AT96
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ptcA-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ptc-lacZ.10.8L}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ptc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 114 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 64 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ptc
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ptc
Deletions and Duplications ( 19 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
eye disc & morphogenetic furrow
follicle cell & nucleus | somatic clone
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptc9)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptc13)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptc16)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptc17)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptc34)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptc37)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptc47)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptc559.1)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptcG12)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptcS2)
head capsule & cuticle | ectopic (with ptctuf-1)
microchaeta & head
photoreceptor cell & axon
scutellum & macrochaeta | somatic clone
tergite & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4hs.PB
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
11 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900ZH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500NN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01N5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0DGB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0LGQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 4 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulation the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-59
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:8,649,649..8,665,223 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    44D5-44E1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Vps25k08904&P{lacW}ptck02507 and P{PZ}l(2)44DEa05847
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    44D-44D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 44D5--6 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    44E-44E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    44D5-44D6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    44D3-44D4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    44D-44E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Maps near Bl.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (44)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (57)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: ptc CG2411
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: ptc rubr
      Source for merge of: ptc Conf
      Source for merge of: ptc BcDNA:RH36596
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of ptc BcDNA:RH36596 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
      Not allelic to ap, Bl, M(2)p or msf.
      Other Comments
      ptc is required for proper tracheal ganglionic branch morphogenesis.
      ptc is not required for tracheal ganglionic branch fate determination or the formation of tracheal cellular extensions.
      Loss of ptc activity in the neuroectoderm prior to the formation of S1 and S2 neuroblasts causes the majority of axon guidance defects.
      ptc protein limits the hh protein gradient in the wing disc by internalizing hh protein through endosomes in a shi dependent manner.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      Epistatic analysis places cos function downstream of ptc and smo.
      3 alleles of ptc have been recovered in a screen for mutations with smo-like mutant phenotypes in clones in the wing.
      ptc-smo signalling has a role in head morphogenesis to promote cell proliferation via activation of babo.
      The sterol sensing domain (SSD) may mediate the vesicular trafficking of ptc to regulate smo activity.
      ptc may control smo activity by regulating an intracellular trafficking process dependant on the integrity of the sterol sensing domain (SSD).
      ptc protein destabilises smo protein in the absence of hh protein.
      Two EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.
      fu is required autonomously in anterior cells neighboring hh to maintain ptc and wg expression. The hh signalling components smo and ci are required in cells posterior to hh to maintain ptc expression, whereas fu is not necessary in these cells.
      ptc protein normally binds hh gene product without any help of the smo gene product, though smo is also a part of the receptor complex that binds hh and transduces the hh signal. The mechanism of signal transduction may involve hh binding specifically to ptc and inducing a conformational change leading to the release of latent smo activity.
      Either en or inv is required to uncouple the ptc-gsb regulatory circuit in row 5 neuroblasts during neurogenesis.
      Each primordia of the genital disc (female genital, male genital and anal primordia) is divided into anterior and posterior compartments. Clonal phenotype of genes known to play compartment specific functions demonstrate the anterior/posterior patterning functions of these genes are conserved in the genital disc.
      Genetic combinations with mutants of nub cause additive phenotypes.
      ci forms a negative feedback loop with ptc and regulates expression of hh target genes.
      smo acts downstream from ptc to transduce the hh signal.
      The pattern of expression of ptc in the larval and adult abdomen has been analysed.
      hh and ptc can regulate transcription from a wg enhancer element containing ci protein binding sites by modulating the activity of ci protein.
      wg-ptc double mutants exhibit defects in the restriction of dorsal median cells to segment boundaries and alterations in CNS and midline cell fates.
      ptc function is required for the formation of NB4-2 and specification of identity. ptc and gsb interact during specification of the NB4-2 identity, but not during delamination of NB4-2 from the neuroectoderm. ptc signalling pathway directly represses the gsb expression in row 4 neuroblasts and their precursor neuroectoderm.
      hh antagonizes the activity of ptc in the specification of primary and secondary but not tertiary cell types in the dorsal epidermis.
      smo activity is required in wing anterior cells along the A/P boundary for these cells both to transduce hh and to limit its further movement into the anterior compartment. ptc regulates smo activity in response to hh signalling.
      ptc and ci are expressed in a pattern complementary to hh and en in adult ovaries. Ectopic expression of hh results in the ectopic expression of ptc. hh directly effects region 2 somatic cells of the germarium via a signalling pathway which includes ptc and ci, but not wg or dpp.
      In competition binding, cross-linking and co-immunoprecipitation experiments no binding of tagged hh protein to smo protein or its rat homolog could be detected, although hh protein can bind to the protein encoded by the mouse homolog of ptc.
      ptc and dpp are subject to differential regulation in the posterior eye disc. Elevated en levels repress dpp, ptc and ci expression but do not disrupt eye morphogenesis.
      Loss of ptc function has non-autonomous effects on anterior/posterior (A/P) and equatorial/polar (Eq/PI) polarity in the adult eye. ptc- cells act non-autonomously on ommatidial differentiation by generating furrows that spread from the clone onto wild type tissue.
      Clonal analysis demonstrates that constitutive Mmus\Pkaca activity does not compensate for loss of ptc gene function.
      ptc influences wing disc patterning by decreasing ci protein levels and inactivating hh target genes in the anterior compartment.
      Pka-C1 activity is not regulated by ptc but may be regulated by hh.
      Pka-C1 is an integral component of the mechanism that restricts the expression of dpp, ptc and wg in imaginal discs.
      wg and ptc are negative regulators of the morphogenetic furrow and influence tissue polarity in the developing compound eye.
      ci is epistatic to ptc in the maintenance of wg expression and the formation of naked cuticle.
      The en-hh-ptc regulatory loop that is responsible for segmental expression of wg in the embryo is reused in imaginal disks to create a stripe of dpp expression along the A/P compartment boundary.
      hh pathway mutants induce ectopic morphogenetic furrows. Results show that ommatidial clusters are self-organising units whose polarity in one axis is determined by the direction of furrow progression and which can independently define the position of an equator without reference to the global coordinates of the eye disc.
      Mutations in ptc show strong-non-autonomous effects in clones induced in the developing eye. Both ptc and Pka-C1 are required for the correct regulation of morphogenetic furrow progression, apparently via repression of dpp. Loss of function of either ptc or Pka-C1 in cells anterior to the furrow results in an ectopic furrow characterised by non-autonomous propagation of dpp expression outside the mutant tissue and ectopic photoreceptor differentiation. Both ptc and Pka-C1 act downstream of hh.
      The ptc membrane-bound product partially co-localizes with the wg product during embryogenesis, suggesting the interaction of ptc protein with elements of the reception complex of wg.
      Viable mutations in the segmentation genes ptc cause specific alterations in dpp expression within the anterior-posterior compartment boundary of the wing disc. ptc gene product controls dpp expression in the imaginal discs and the restricted expression of dpp near the anterior-posterior compartment boundary is essential to maintain the wild type morphology of the wing disc.
      Direct wg autoregulation differs from wg signalling to adjacent cells in the importance of fu, smo and ci relative to sgg and arm.
      ptc mutant analysis and stage-specific laser inactivation of ptc protein indicates that ptc activity is functionally redeployed after the segmentation phenocritical period to discriminate between neural and epithelial cell fates.
      Repeated pulses of ptc lead to transcriptional repression of the segment polarity genes wg and gsb in the embryonic trunk and a wg like phenotype in the larval cuticle.
      In the embryo hh regulation of ptc apparently facilitates ptc and wg expression. In the discs hh regulation of ptc and other genes in the anterior compartment helps to establish the proximodistal axis.
      The muscle phenotype of mutant ptc embryos is less severe than that for wg and nkd mutants.
      Wild type activity of five segment polarity genes, wg, ptc, en, nkd and hh, can account for most of the ventral pattern elements in the embryo. wg is required for naked cuticle and en is required for the first row of denticles in each abdominal denticle belt. Remaining cell types are produced by different combinations of the five gene activities. wg generates the diversity of cell types within the segment but each specific cell identity depends on the activity of ptc, en, nkd and hh. ptc and nkd may affect wg autoregulation, and restrict wg activity within the segment. ptc and hh show mutual suppression through opposing effects on wg expression.
      Transcriptional control of both ptc and wg by hh is mediated by the same signal transduction pathway. Transcriptional control of ptc is mediated by fu and ci. fu and ci are required for normal wg transcription, acting downstream of ptc to regulate wg transcription. cos negatively regulates ptc and wg transcription. Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate cis-acting control elements drive ptc expression specifically in cells flanking the hh domain.
      Segment polarity mutations cause stripes of abnormal patterning within sectors of the leg disc, which may be mediated by regional perturbations in growth.
      The ptc and hh genes encode components of a signal transduction pathway that regulate the expression of wg transcription following its activation by pair rule genes, but most other aspects of wg expression are independent of ptc and hh. The suppression of ectopic wg transcription in pair rule mutants depends on ptc. Expression of wg in the absence of ptc depends on hh. Absence of ptc activity can result in de novo activation of wg after gastrulation.
      The role of ptc in the regulation of run mRNA expression in the early embryo has been investigated.
      The pattern of ptc protein expression during embryonic development has been analysed.
      wg and en expression patterns are studied in all known segment polarity mutants to investigate the requirement of other segment polarity genes in mediating the maintenance of wg and en.
      Dfd expression unaffected by mutations at this locus.
      Expression of hh in patch mutants analysed.
      Ectopic uniform wg expression results in patched being expressed in those cells that are not expressing en (as in wild type), but since the en stripe is broader the patch stripe is thinner.
      Pattern of hh expression in ptc mutants studied. In the absence of ptc function, wg expression, which is normally en-dependent, no longer requires en.
      At the semi-permissive temperatures cold sensitive alleles of sm can suppress the cuticular phenotype of ptc.
      The ptc phenotype cannot be completely rescued when in double mutant combination with wg, hh, en or gsb. This suggests that ptc is specifically required for patterning of the central cells of each segment.
      The role of ptc in positional signalling is permissive rather than instructive, its activity is required to suppress wg transcription in cells predisposed to express wg. These cells receive an extrinsic signal, encoded by hh, that antagonises the repressive activity of ptc. Results suggest that ptc protein may be the receptor for the hh signal, implying that this is an unusual mechanism of ligand-dependent receptor inactivation.
      Mutations in zygotic polarity gene patch do not interact with RpII140wimp.
      Expression of ptc from a heat shock promoter has demonstrated that despite ptc localised requirement the restricted expression of ptc does not itself allocate positional information.
      nkd and tuf mutant embryos show ectopic expression of Ba in the limb primordia. There is a correspondence between the Ba expression and the spatial organization of the larval and adult limbs that develop from the primordium.
      ptc is negatively regulated by en in the early extended germ band. ptc parasegmental boundaries are shifted in nkd embryos forming posterior to each en domain: expression domain is reduced. After stage 11 most ptc transcripts begin to disappear and by the end of germ band retraction ptc is absent from most of the cells in wgl-17, hh21 and en- embryos. Late ptc transcription patterns depend upon selective repression by ciD and itself.
      The role of ptc in patterning the cuticle of the adult fly has been analysed.
      The role of segment polarity genes in arm protein accumulation has been investigated.
      The ptc gene encodes an integral membrane protein with multiple membrane spanning domains.
      ptc has a specific role in the control of cell fates during neurogenesis: ptc specifies a subset of neuroblasts and neural progeny.
      The ability of ptc mutant embryos to produce adult structures when cultured in vivo has been analysed.
      The ptc gene is involved in patterning within segments in Drosophila. The viable first-identified mutant has a small tuft of hairs between eyes and antennae and shows basal twinning of the anterior halves of wings; it overlaps wild type. ptc/Tp(2;3)dp has an extreme form of this mutant phenotype. Other mutants are embryonic lethals of the segment-polarity type. There is a mirror-image duplication of segment boundaries and adjacent cuticle of all segments with deletion of the remainder of the segment. Defect visible during extended-germ-band stage (6 hr) (Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980). Normal number of denticle bands; duplicated region of embryo includes some naked cuticle anterior to denticle bands. Pattern of neurons underlying affected epidermal region is altered (Patel et al., 1989). This mutant has no effect on the spatial expression of the 'pair-rule' mutant ftz (Carroll and Scott, 1986). ptc embryos cultured in vivo produced derivatives of the eye-antennal and thoracic discs, the latter being abnormal in morphology and in en expression (Simcox et al., 1989).
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 57 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BcDNA:RH36596
      Conf
      Ptc
      (García-Morales et al., 2019, Meltzer, 2019-, Meltzer et al., 2019, Baldeosingh et al., 2018, Giordano et al., 2018, Jiang et al., 2018, Kastl et al., 2018, Lehmann, 2018, Li et al., 2018, Yu et al., 2018, Hsia et al., 2017, Li et al., 2017, Zhao et al., 2017, Zhu et al., 2017, Jiang et al., 2016, Jiang et al., 2016, Lee et al., 2016, Mbodj et al., 2016, Yadav et al., 2016, Bolatto et al., 2015, Ciepla et al., 2015, Dorn and Dorn, 2015, Im et al., 2015, Khaliullina et al., 2015, Xiong et al., 2015, Hong and Luo, 2014, Kanca et al., 2014, Kuzhandaivel et al., 2014, Pichaud, 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Bausek, 2013, Briscoe and Thérond, 2013, Chang et al., 2013, Chen and Jiang, 2013, Gao et al., 2013, Gradilla and Guerrero, 2013, Grigorian et al., 2013, Lawrence and Casal, 2013, Li et al., 2013, Mbodj et al., 2013, Palm et al., 2013, Solis et al., 2013, Yousefian et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Avanesov et al., 2012, Carroll et al., 2012, Cheng et al., 2012, Ranieri et al., 2012, Robbins et al., 2012, Rojas-Ríos et al., 2012, Sánchez-Hernández et al., 2012, Wu et al., 2012, Bangi et al., 2011, Brochtrup and Hummel, 2011, Callejo et al., 2011, Gonsalves et al., 2011, Hamaratoglu et al., 2011, Lee et al., 2011, Rodriguez, 2011, Vincent et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Ayers et al., 2010, Camp et al., 2010, Gettings et al., 2010, Usha and Shashidhara, 2010, Benítez et al., 2009, Gao et al., 2009, Callejo et al., 2008, Franch-Marro et al., 2008, González et al., 2008, Katanaev et al., 2008, Somorjai and Martinez-Arias, 2008, Vyas et al., 2008, Callejo et al., 2007, Deshpande et al., 2007, Eugster et al., 2007, Gallet et al., 2007, Makhijani et al., 2007, Mandal et al., 2007, Beenken and Mohammadi, 2006, Bras-Pereira et al., 2006, Jaekel and Klein, 2006, Lu et al., 2006, McLellan et al., 2006, Ogden et al., 2006, Osterlund and Kogerman, 2006, Wilson and Chuang, 2006, Horabin, 2005, Mehlen et al., 2005, Han et al., 2004, Higaki et al., 2004, Jekely and Rorth, 2003)
      pat
      ptc
      (Sun et al., 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Ahaley, 2018, Li et al., 2018, Mortensen et al., 2018, Tokusumi et al., 2018, Tseng et al., 2018, Albert and Bökel, 2017, Bhat, 2017, Dai et al., 2017, Franz et al., 2017, Garcia-Garcia et al., 2017, Hsia et al., 2017, Lai et al., 2017, Smelkinson et al., 2017, Takemura and Nakato, 2017, Atwell et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Li et al., 2016, Ma et al., 2016, Moulton and Letsou, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Ulmschneider et al., 2016, Willsey et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Gurdziel et al., 2015, Kakugawa et al., 2015, Liu et al., 2015, Lu et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Moncrieff et al., 2015, Okumura et al., 2015, Zhou et al., 2015, Butí et al., 2014, Camp et al., 2014, Huang and Kalderon, 2014, Issman-Zecharya and Schuldiner, 2014, Jiang et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Maier et al., 2014, Ranieri et al., 2014, Shi et al., 2014, Shi et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Zhu, 2014.8.28, Avanesov and Blair, 2013, Chai et al., 2013, Chen and Jiang, 2013, Christiansen et al., 2013, Da Ros et al., 2013, Ducuing et al., 2013, Fan et al., 2013, Gao et al., 2013, Geisbrecht et al., 2013, Giannios and Tsitilou, 2013, Hooper, 2013.5.30, Huang et al., 2013, Kupinski et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Lawrence and Casal, 2013, Moran et al., 2013, Repiso et al., 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Spratford and Kumar, 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Ayers et al., 2012, Christiansen et al., 2012, Fan et al., 2012, Gross et al., 2012, Kagey et al., 2012, Legent et al., 2012, Rojas-Ríos et al., 2012, Sagner et al., 2012, Troost and Klein, 2012, White-Cooper, 2012, White et al., 2012, Xia et al., 2012, Brockmann et al., 2011, Callejo et al., 2011, Cherbas et al., 2011, Choo et al., 2011, Dworkin et al., 2011, Layalle et al., 2011, Marks and Kalderon, 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Molnar et al., 2011, Parker et al., 2011, Pérez et al., 2011, Schilling et al., 2011, Shi et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Su et al., 2011, Terriente-Félix et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, Watson et al., 2011, Weyers et al., 2011, Yuva-Aydemir et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Zhou and Kalderon, 2011, Biehs et al., 2010, Casali, 2010, Cheng et al., 2010, Chou et al., 2010, Hartman et al., 2010, Herranz et al., 2010, Kawahashi and Hayashi, 2010, Kühnlein, 2010, Li et al., 2010, Raisin et al., 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Seong et al., 2010, Stempfle et al., 2010, Stoll et al., 2010, Subramanian and Gadgil, 2010, Vuilleumier et al., 2010, Wu et al., 2010, Yan et al., 2010, Yavari et al., 2010, Zheng et al., 2010, Zhou and Kalderon, 2010, Ayers et al., 2009, Bejarano and Milán, 2009, Blanco et al., 2009, Chaves et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2009, Foronda et al., 2009, Gazi et al., 2009, Hazelett et al., 2009, Hödl and Basler, 2009, Insco et al., 2009, Jia et al., 2009, Julius et al., 2009, Khaliullina et al., 2009, Kondo et al., 2009, May and Schiek, 2009, Mosimann et al., 2009, Mulinari and Häcker, 2009, Nahmad and Stathopoulos, 2009, Renault et al., 2009, Rhiner et al., 2009, Vied and Kalderon, 2009, Zúñiga et al., 2009, Baena-Lopez et al., 2008, Brás-Pereira and Casares, 2008, Casso et al., 2008, Chaves and Albert, 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Gallet et al., 2008, Kawamura et al., 2008, Lebreton et al., 2008, McLellan et al., 2008, Millard and Martin, 2008, Ogden et al., 2008, Sánchez et al., 2008, Shen et al., 2008, Su et al., 2008, Taylor and Adler, 2008, VanZomeren-Dohm et al., 2008, Vincent et al., 2008, Wang and Price, 2008, Ambrus et al., 2007, Bejarano et al., 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Buszczak et al., 2007, Chanana et al., 2007, Chen et al., 2007, Claret et al., 2007, Corrigall et al., 2007, Dominguez-Gimenez et al., 2007, Escudero et al., 2007, Lee et al., 2007, Lindner et al., 2007, Lindner et al., 2007, Liu et al., 2007, Malpel et al., 2007, Molnar et al., 2007, Ruel et al., 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Silver et al., 2007, Smelkinson et al., 2007, Su et al., 2007, Sun and Deng, 2007, Tao et al., 2007, Umemori et al., 2007, Walthall et al., 2007, Callejo et al., 2006, Casal et al., 2006, Chanut-Delalande et al., 2006, Dussillol-Godar et al., 2006, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson., 2006, Fraser, 2006, Gallet et al., 2006, Kent et al., 2006, Legent et al., 2006, Maitra et al., 2006, Miura et al., 2006, Molnar and de Celis, 2006, Price et al., 2006, Ramos and Mohler, 2006, Suh et al., 2006, Wendler et al., 2006, Yao et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Zhou et al., 2006, Akimoto et al., 2005, Ayyub et al., 2005, Briscoe and Therond, 2005, Dawber et al., 2005, Glise et al., 2005, Gorfinkiel et al., 2005, Ishii, 2005, Merianda et al., 2005, Nybakken et al., 2005, Roederer et al., 2005, Tian et al., 2005, Torroja et al., 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Hime et al., 2004, Stanyon et al., 2004, Hayashi and Murakami, 2001, Pickeral et al., 2000, Forbes et al., 1996, Johnson et al., 1995, Martinez Arias et al., 1988)
      Name Synonyms
      Confused
      compaction defects 4
      patch
      patched
      (García-Morales et al., 2019, Li et al., 2017, Atwell et al., 2016, Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Matsuda et al., 2015, Su, 2015, Xiong et al., 2015, Jones and Srivastava, 2014, Kim et al., 2014, Geisbrecht et al., 2013, Marques-Pita and Rocha, 2013, Repiso et al., 2013, Spratford and Kumar, 2013, Kagey et al., 2012, Brockmann et al., 2011, Meyer et al., 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Watson et al., 2011, Weyers et al., 2011, Biehs et al., 2010, Cheng et al., 2010, Herranz et al., 2010, Kawahashi and Hayashi, 2010, Kühnlein, 2010, Li et al., 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Seong et al., 2010, Stempfle et al., 2010, Vuilleumier et al., 2010, Blanco et al., 2009, Foronda et al., 2009, Gazi et al., 2009, Hödl and Basler, 2009, Kondo et al., 2009, Mulinari and Häcker, 2009, Rhiner et al., 2009, Shalaby et al., 2009, Casso et al., 2008, Dansereau and Lasko, 2008, Franch-Marro et al., 2008, Gallet et al., 2008, Ishihara and Shibata, 2008, Lebreton et al., 2008, McLellan et al., 2008, Millard and Martin, 2008, Ogden et al., 2008, Shen et al., 2008, Taylor and Adler, 2008, VanZomeren-Dohm et al., 2008, Vincent et al., 2008, Casso et al., 2007, Corrigall et al., 2007, Dominguez-Gimenez et al., 2007, Escudero et al., 2007, Lee et al., 2007, Tao et al., 2007, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Fraser, 2006, Jones et al., 2006, Wendler et al., 2006, Yasunaga et al., 2006, Akimoto et al., 2005, Ayyub et al., 2005, Merianda et al., 2005, Roederer et al., 2005, Wagner, 2005, Hime et al., 2004, Kamimura et al., 2004, Petit et al., 2002, Martinez Arias et al., 1988)
      rubberneck
      tufted
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0013766
      • FBgn0015537
      • FBgn0064818
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (997)