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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\usp
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
ultraspiracle
Annotation Symbol
CG4380
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003964
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
DmUSP, CF1, dUSP, EG:22E5 .1, NR2B4
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:2,038,798..2,042,311 [-]
Recombination map
1-0.5
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR2 subfamily. (P20153)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NUCLEAR RECEPTOR (LIGAND-DEPENDENT) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Nuclear receptors (NR) are C4 zinc finger ligand-dependent DNA-binding transcription factors. Members of the NR superfamily are defined by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain and a less conserved C-terminal ligand-binding domain. (Adapted from FBrf0184203).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Receptor for ecdysone. May be an important modulator of insect metamorphosis. Plays an important part in embryonic and post-embryonic development. Binds to ecdysone response elements (ECRES) such as in the promoter region of s15 chorion gene.
(UniProt, P20153)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
cf1: Chorion factor 1
Encodes a protein that binds the promoter region of Cp15.
usp: ultraspiracle (A. E. Oro)
Mutants are recessive lethals. usp/usp or usp// progeny of usp/+ mothers die during the first larval instar or in the molt to the second instar. Those that die during the molt to the second instar sometimes have incompletely molted the first instar set of larval spiracles and thus have two sets of spiracles (Perrimon et al., 1985; Oro, McKeown and Evans, in prep.). usp/Y embryos derived from usp/usp germ cells die just prior to or just after hatching with an oval scar on the ventral surface of the posterior eighth abdominal or ninth abdominal segment. The spiracles of these animals appear normal as does the rest of the cuticle and the ventral nervous system. Paternally supplied usp+ completely rescues this phenotype and allows survival to adulthood (Perrimon et al., 1985; Oro, McKeown, and Evans, in prep.). Use of a conditional expression system for rescue of the first/second instar lethal phase results in survival into the third instar and early pupal periods, with no animals surviving beyond pupal stage P4 (Oro, Mckeown, and Evans, in prep.). usp/0//usp+ gyandromorphs do not survive suggesting that the gene is required in multiple parts of the body and not just in the terminal regions. γ-ray induced usp/usp clones survive in the female germline, abdomen, thorax and head, showing that usp is not a general cell lethal. Clones in the head are associated with defects in rhabdomere and ommatidial morphology (Oro, McKeown, and Evans, in prep.). Expression of a usp cDNA at high levels throughout development rescues the usp- phenotype and has no deletenous effect on usp+ animals, suggesting that any necessary spatial or temporal regulation of usp action occurs by regulation of some other factor such as a ligand.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - RXR homolog - nuclear receptor - cofactor for Ecdysone receptor
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\usp or the JBrowse view of Dmel\usp for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.43
Shares 5' UTR with downstream gene.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070346
2515
508
FBtr0333803
3038
508
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070332
55.2
508
8.05
FBpp0305937
55.2
508
8.05
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

508 aa isoforms: usp-PA, usp-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
54, 48 (kD observed)
507 (aa); 55 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Heterodimer of USP and ECR. Only the heterodimer is capable of high-affinity binding to ecdysone.
(UniProt, P20153)
Domain
Composed of three domains: a modulating N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain.
(UniProt, P20153)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\usp using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (40 terms)
Molecular Function (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
contributes_to ecdysone binding
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:EcR; FB:FBgn0000546
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:rig; FB:FBgn0250850
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:EcR; FB:FBgn0000546
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002786703
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000003, InterPro:IPR001723
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000003, InterPro:IPR001628, InterPro:IPR013088
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (20 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001182511
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002786703
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001182511
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000638895
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002786703
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
usp transcripts are detected at all stages tested on northern blots with the highest levels in late wandering third instar larvae and the lowest levels in early first and third instar larvae.
usp transcripts accumulate in the oocyte and nurse cells starting in oocyte stage S8 and reaching a maximum in stage S10. By stage S12, they are confined to the degenerating nurse cells. usp transcripts are uniformly distributed in early embryos and remain so through germ band elongation. During germ band retraction, transcript levels become higher in the ventral nervous system and in the developing midgut.
usp transcripts are expressed throughout the life cycle with the highest levels in embryos and adults.
usp transcripts are more abundant in ovarian follicles than in other tissues and stages.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
usp protein is present in nuclear extracts from ovaries.
usp protein is expressed in all cells of the eye imaginal disc.
usp protein is detected at all embryonic stages and in first instar larvae on western blots. It decreases to low levels in 2nd and early third instar larvae and increases again in late third instar larvae and pupae. usp protein is detected by immunolocalization in late third instar larvae. It is present in wing disc, salivary gland, fat body, ring gland, CNS, leg disc and antennal disc.
During oogenesis, usp protein is detected in germ-line nurse cells and in the somatic follicular epithelium.
usp protein is present in ovarian follicles.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\usp in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of usp
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of usp
Deletions and Duplications ( 19 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult mushroom body & axon
antennal lobe & axon
dorsal mesothoracic disc & neuron | somatic clone
gamma-lobe & neuron | somatic clone
olfactory neuron & axon
olfactory neuron & dendrite
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
11 of 15
Yes
No
10 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
No
11 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (11)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909OT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504XR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07AX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X057P )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0YX6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Heterodimer of USP and ECR. Only the heterodimer is capable of high-affinity binding to ecdysone.
(UniProt, P20153 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-0.5
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:2,038,798..2,042,311 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
2C7-2C7
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP427 and P{EP}ActnEP1193&P{EP}CG4322EP1631
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
2C1-2C3
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
2C-2C
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (15)
Genomic Clones (7)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (71)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments
Ortholog of B. mori juvenile-hormone-related gene (involved in JH biosynthesis, metabolism or signaling).
dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of usp reduces the primary dendrite outgrowth of ddaD and ddaE neurons, but causes only modest reduction of lateral branching and lateral branch outgrowth. RNAi also causes defects in muscle, alterations in the number of MD neurons, defects in dendrite morphogenesis and reproducible defects in da dendrite development.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
The EcR/usp heterodimer DNA binding activity requires activation by a chaperone heterocomplex of six proteins including the products of Hsp83 and the Hsc70 genes.
usp has a cell autonomous role in controlling neuronal remodelling.
EcR/usp may play an essential role as a hormonal timer.
The ng-EcRE, located within the coding region of ng1 and ng2, binds the EcR/usp heterodimer through its widely spaced half sites.
usp has no apparent function in mid-third instar larvae, but is required in late third instar larvae for the appropriate developmental and transcriptional responses to the ecdysone pulse that triggers puparium formation.
usp is required in the anterior of the ovary for normal terminal filament differentiation.
Binding site selection procedure demonstrates that the EcR/usp heterodimer binds to the core recognition motif (consensus sequence consists of a perfect palindrome of the heptameric half-site sequence GAGGTCA that is separated by a single A/T base pair).
The function of a bacterially expressed usp protein is studied and results demonstrate the suitability of this technology for functional studies of insect nuclear receptors.
Cotransfection studies show that heterodimers of usp and human thyroid hormone receptor β (T3Rβ) can transactivate the human apolopoprotein A-II (apoA-II) promoter.
usp protein binds juvenile hormone III and juvenile hormone III acid with specificity, adopting a different final conformation state for each ligand.
usp is required for normal morphogenetic furrow movement and ommatidial cluster formation.
The EcR/usp heterodimer binds in vitro to direct repeats and these repeats can confer ecdysteroid responsiveness on minimal promoters in a cell transfection assay. The natural pseudopalindromic EcR/usp binding site in the Fbp1 enhancer is required to mediate a fat body-specific ecdysteroid response. The profound differences in structure between these two types of EcR/usp binding site do not dictate a spatial and temporal specificity of the transcriptional response they mediate.
Interaction of the DNA binding domain with a 20-hydroxyecdysone palindromic response element from the promoter region of Hsp27 is studied.
The usp gene is essential for the correct spatial expression of Vm32E.
DNA-blotting assay has identified a high affinity ecdysone receptor binding site within the ng1 and ng2 coding sequence. EMSA assay demonstrates the 93bp 'ng element' is able to bind an EcR/usp heterodimer and usp alone.
Testing pairwise combinations of the hormone receptor superfamily demonstrates EcR and usp interact as a dimer.
The usp product acts as an allosteric effector to enhance steroid binding by the EcR product. Under some conditions, DNA binding by EcR/usp product is highly steroid-dependent.
Clonal analysis with usp mutations in adult flies reveals a range of imaginal disc phenotypes.
The svp product modulates usp product-based signalling both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of usp rescues the larva from the lethal effects of overexpression of svp.
The in vitro characterisation of the EcR/usp binding site its ecdysone- dependent in vivo occupancy in different genetic backgrounds support the conclusion that the Fbp1 enhancer is a primary target of the EcR.
usp expression undergoes numerous and frequent changes during embryonic, larval and adult development.
Ecdysteroid-regulated gene.
The equilibrium dissociation constant of the usp protein to its response element on the Cp15 promoter is determined and compared to the binding activities of other nuclear hormone receptors to their cognate elements.
Transient cotransfection experiments in HeLa cells demonstrated that EcR must heterodimerize with usp (the homolog of the mammalian retinoid X receptor) for DNA binding and transactivation. EcR/usp gene product DNA binding activity is unaffected by ecdysteroid and 9-cis-retinoic acid.
EcR and usp native gene products co-localise on ecdysone-responsive loci. Physical associations in the presence and absence of ecdysone redefine the ecdysone receptor as a dynamic complex whose activity may be altered by combinatorial interactions among subunits and ligand.
Distribution of usp product during oogenesis, and in vitro binding properties of bacterially produced usp product both to an optimal binding site and to the Cp15 promoter have been studied. USP may operate as a heterodimer in vivo, though identity of the partner remains to be determined.
Evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes, in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place, is studied.
usp is a Drosophila partner of EcR. Together usp and EcR bind DNA in a highly cooperative pattern. Cotransfection of both usp and EcR is required to render cultured mammalian cells ecdysone responsive.
usp has been cloned and sequenced.
usp product is a retinoid X receptor homologue, this suggests that similar chemical cues underlie morphogenetic signalling in vertebrate and invertebrate systems.
Molecular cloning and characterization has shown usp to be a novel member of the zinc finger protein superfamily.
Mutants are recessive lethals. usp1/usp1 or usp1/γ progeny of usp1/+ mothers die during the first larval instar or in the molt to the second instar. Those that die during the molt to the second instar sometimes have incompletely molted the first instar set of larval spiracles and thus have two sets of spiracles (FBrf0042629; FBrf0055872). usp1/Y embryos derived from usp1/usp1 germ cells die just prior to or just after hatching with an oval scar on the ventral surface of the posterior eighth abdominal or ninth abdominal segment. The spiracles of these animals appear normal as does the rest of the cuticle and the ventral nervous system. Paternally supplied usp+ completely rescues this phenotype and allows survival to adulthood (FBrf0042629; FBrf0055872). Use of a conditional expression system for rescue of the first/second instar lethal phase results in survival into the third instar and early pupal periods, with no animals surviving beyond pupal stage P4 (FBrf0055872). usp1/0//usp+ gynandromorphs do not survive suggesting that the gene is required in multiple parts of the body and not just in the terminal regions. γ-ray induced usp1/usp1 clones survive in the female germ-line, abdomen, thorax and head, showing that usp is not a general cell lethal. Clones in the head are associated with defects in rhabdomere and ommatidial morphology (FBrf0055872). Expression of a usp cDNA at high levels throughout development rescues the usp- phenotype and has no deleterious effect on usp+ animals, suggesting that any necessary spatial or temporal regulation of usp action occurs by regulation of some other factor such as a ligand.
Encodes a protein that binds the promoter region of Cp15.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Lefevre.
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 62 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
cf1
l(1)2Cf
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
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    References (421)