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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\vg
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
vestigial
Annotation Symbol
CG3830
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003975
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
vestigial (vg) encodes a wing/haltere identity selector gene. It functions as a transcriptional activator when bound to the product of sd to direct wing specific gene expression and regulate cell proliferation. It also has a role in muscle specification. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As
vestigal
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:12,884,632..12,899,385 [+]
Recombination map
2-67
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Involved in determining which thoracic imaginal disk cells will form wings and halteres, perhaps by interacting with other nuclear regulatory proteins. When in combination with scalloped (sd), it acts as a transcriptional activation complex that regulates gene expression in the wing. Binding to sd switches the DNA target selectivity of sd. Required and sufficient for cell proliferation at the dorsal/ventral (D/V) boundary of the wing imaginal disk. Also required for cell proliferation in the wing imaginal disk, mediated via activation of E2f. By interacting with Dhfr, may control genes involved in DNA replication.
(UniProt, Q26366)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
vg: vestigial
thumb
vg1: vestigial
From Bridges and Morgan, 1919, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. No. 278: 148.
thumb
vgno: vestigial-notched
From Mohr, 1932, Proc. Intern. Congr. Genet. 6th Vol. 1: 190-212.
The vestigial locus seems to be mainly involved in the development of the wing margin. The mutants are recessive viable (with or without a visible phenotype), recessive lethal, or dominant (with a visible phenotype over wild type or a vg allele); some alleles complement each other; others show pleotropic effects or homeosis (Bownes and Roberts, 1981). In the classical vg mutants, the wings of homozygotes are reduced to vestiges and usually held at right angles to the body, the wing veins still visible. Some mutants have narrow, nicked, or scalloped wings. Halteres may be reduced or absent. Postscutellar bristles are frequently held erect. Viability is somewhat reduced; null mutants are sterile. Temperatures of 29 or greater appreciably increase wing size (Harnly, 1936, Genetics 21: 84-103; Stanley, 1935, J. Exp. Zool. 69: 459-95). A suppressor of vg on the third chromosome, su(vg), results in an almost normal phenotype at 28, an intermediate vg phenotype at 25, and a strong vg phenotype (in wings and especially halteres) under 20 (David, et al., 1970). vg/+ heterozygotes with certain Minutes show scalloping of the wings (Green and Oliver, 1940; Simpson et al., 1981). vg/vg/+ has scalloped wings more often than vg/+ (Green, 1946). Final size of larva is smaller than in wild type and pupation occurs slightly later. Wing disks of late larva are also somewhat smaller than in wild type (Auerbach, 1936), as are haltere disks (Chen, 1929). Goldschmidt (1935, 1937) claimed that wings are more or less fully formed and subsequently eroded by degeneration during pupation. Waddington (1939, 1940) found no evidence of erosion and concluded that the effect of the gene occurs during the larval period and involves reduction in size of prospective wing area and shift in position of line along which wing area is folded out from the imaginal disk. Fristrom (1968, 1969), however, using both light and electron microscopy, found numerous degenerating cells in the presumptive wing blade region of the vg wing disks, as did Bryant and Girton (1980), Bownes and Roberts (1981a, 1981b), James and Bryant (1981), and O'Brochta and Bryant (1983). Duplications of the mesonotum along with deficiences of wing disk material occur in a small percentage of vg mutants (Girton and Bryant, 1980; James and Bryant, 1981).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
wing/haltere identity selector gene - transcription factor - when bound to Scalloped , Vg activates several genes in the wing field, for example activation of Serum response factor intervein promoter - muscle specification
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\vg or the JBrowse view of Dmel\vg for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.40
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087785
3463
453
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086898
46.3
453
7.03
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
453 (aa); 46 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
The Ser-rich protein domain within the C-terminal region interacts with the C-terminus of sd to form a complex which acts as a selector for wing development. Interacts with Dhfr.
(UniProt, Q26366)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\vg using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P17719
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P30052
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (16 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:sd; FB:FBgn0003345
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:cpa; FB:FBgn0034577
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001440105
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
In addition to the previously reported expression in wing and haltere discs, vg transcripts are detected in third larval instar brain by RT-PCR.
vg transcripts are first detected in embryos at stage 10. They are found in lateral stripes from T1 to A7 and in ventrolateral clusters that correspond to the presumptive wing and haltere discs. They are also expressed in a segmentally repeated pattern in the CNS. The vg transcript is expressed at low levels throughout the wing and haltere discs. It is expressed in elevated levels in a broad stripe across the wing and haltere discs in a region that demarcates the wing and haltere forming subregions of the discs. The identification of the presumptive humeral disc as a site of expression is tentative.
Embryonic expression and low level wing and haltere disc expression are normal while the high level restricted expression in wing and haltere discs is absent in vg83b27 mutants.
vg transcripts are expressed at maximal levels in embryos and pupae and are also detected in adults on northern blots. vg transcripts are present at very low levels in 0-4 and 4-8hr embryos, increase substantially in 8-12hr embryos and are expressed through the remainder of embryogenesis before declining in first instar larvae. A 2kb transcript is also detected with one of the probes used but it is not clear if it is vg-specific.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal medial indirect flight muscle
nucleus

Comment: reference states 21 hr APF

myoblast | subset
nucleus

Comment: myoblasts surrounding dorsal medial muscle; reference states 21 hr APF

Additional Descriptive Data
vg is expressed in the ventral longitudinal muscles 1-4 starting in embryonic stage 11 and in dorsal acute muscles 1-3 from stage 13 until stage 17. It is also detected in some neuronal cells.
vg is expressed in a subset of cells in the ventral nerve cord including interneurons descending from neuroblasts NB1-2, NB5-1, and NB5-6. vg-positive cells are first detected at embryonic stage 12 (10-12 cells). By stage 16, each thoracic segment contains 41-43 vg-positive cells that divide into six clusters, three located in a dorsal plane and three located in a ventral plane. Each abdominal segment contains fewer vg-positive cells in both the dorsal and ventral planes. Some of these are interneuron descendending from NB1-2, NB5-1, and NB5-6. vg is also expressed in all three midline ventral unpaired median motorneurons (mVUMSs) and in cells that may be progeny of the median neuroblast (MNB).
vg protein expression decreases in presumptive notum of early to mid second instarvg protein is expressed in a band centered on the DV boundary in early third instarvg protein expression is restricted to the distal wing pouch during late third instar
Protein can be detected in a subset of myoblasts in the region between the presumptive wing and leg discs in stage 12 and greater embryos. In the larval wing disc myoblasts in the proximal region of the notum of the developing wing disc express protein while distal myoblasts do not. In pupae protein is detected in the dorsal longitudinal muscles of the developing wings, while it is rarely detected in direct flight muscles.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4-vg.M}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vg(7)-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vg(806)-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vg(D/V)-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vg(int2.1)-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
wing pouch | restricted

Comment: NOT D/V and A/P compartment boundaries

Reporter: P{vgM-GAL4.Exel}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vgMQ-GAL4.Exel}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\vg in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 390 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 42 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of vg
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of vg
Deletions and Duplications ( 163 )
Disrupted in
Partially disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
mesothoracic tergum & chaeta | supernumerary, with Scer\GAL4sca-C253
wing (with vgdn)
wing (with vgE7)
wing (with vgn)
wing (with vgnG)
wing (with vgni)
wing (with vgno)
wing sensillum & sensillum campaniformium | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4Dll-md23
wing vein L2 & wing sensillum
wing vein L3 & wing sensillum
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
 
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190ECJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150GC5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0NA0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0FOZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0P7I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    enhanceable
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    The Ser-rich protein domain within the C-terminal region interacts with the C-terminus of sd to form a complex which acts as a selector for wing development. Interacts with Dhfr.
    (UniProt, Q26366 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-67
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:12,884,632..12,899,385 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    49E1-49E1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}bick10712 and P{PZ}l(2)0142401424
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    49D-49E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (51)
    Genomic Clones (27)
    cDNA Clones (18)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).
        Transvection can occur at the vg locus.
        Binding of vg protein to sd protein switches the DNA-binding selectivity of sd.
        Analysis of distinct mutant phenotypes of molecularly similar P-element mutant alleles suggests that their response to the P-element repressor invokes a critical RNA secondary structure in the vg transcript, the formation of which is hindered by a read-through transcript initiated at the P-element promoter.
        sd and vg-dependant cell adhesion may contribute to separation of the wing blade from the wing hinge and to a gradient of cell affinities along the dorsal-ventral axis of the wing.
        Activation of the N receptor in the wing disc induces the expression of vg and wg, and induces strong mitotic activity. The effect of N on cell proliferation is not simply due to the upregulation of either vg or wg. On the contrary, vg and wg proteins show synergistic effects with N signaling, resulting in the stimulation of cell proliferation in imaginal discs.
        The roles of N, wg and vg during the initial stages of wing development are investigated. vg is involved in the specification of the wing primordia under the combined control of N and wg signalling. Once cells are assigned to the wing fate, their development relies on a sequence of regulatory loops that involve N, wg and vg. During this process, cells that are exposed to the activity of both wg and vg will become wing blade and those that are continuously under the influence of wg alone develop as hinge. The growth of the cells in the wing blade results from a synergistic effect of the three genes N, wg and vg on the cells that have been specified as wing blade.
        Ectopic wg expression non-cell autonomously induces vg expression in leg discs and activated arm (a cytosolic transducer of wg signalling) cell-autonomously induces vg expression, indicating that vg expression is directly activated by wg signalling.
        Specific interactions between vg and sd are required to promote wing tissue proliferation.
        vg and sd function coordinately to control the expression of genes required for wing development.
        Genetic combinations with mutants of nub cause additive phenotypes.
        Factors, in addition to Su(H), must exist to confer tissue-specific expression of vg and to regulate the spatial and temporal features of vg expression within the wing pouch. Ser determines vg expression domains in the wing pouch. Su(H) represses the vg quadrant enhancer at the wing D/V boundary.
        Mad protein binds to and is required for the activation of an enhancer within the vg gene in cells across the entire developing wing blade.
        vg mutants are studied to correlate the consequence of altered vg expression pattern to subsequent changes in patterning in the wing disc.
        vg is selectively required for wing-cell proliferation and is sufficient to induce outgrowths of wing tissue from eyes, legs and antennae. Different signals (N, dpp) activate separate enhancers to control vg expression. vg integrates positional signals in more than one axis and regulates wing formation and identity.
        Expression of wg and vg in the wing margin are direct and parallel responses to the activation of N. wg is not required for the activation of vg, wg activation does not depend on vg function at the dorsoventral boundary. Expression of vg in the wing pouch depends on wg activity, suggesting that a secondary function of vg is to mediate the long-range effects of secreted wg protein in the wing pouch. wg and N cooperate to activate expression of ct, suggesting the wg and N pathways interact synergistically in the wing imaginal disc. These results illustrate that a hierarchical relationship between N, wg and vg patterns the dorsoventral axis of the wing.
        Both wg and vg proteins are targets for activation by the dorso-ventral system, both are required to promote the growth of the wing but only after the wing field has been established.
        Depletion of the dTMP pool by aminopterin leads to a decrease in the amount of vg transcripts. The resistance of vg1 to inhibitors of dTMP synthesis is not due to a qualitatively different effect of this drug on the vg transcript but is related to the expression of a modified vg protein encoded by a truncated transcript.
        Induction of vg requires the combined activities of Ser, wg and N. Based on the patterns of expression and requirements for Ser and wg during initiation wing development it is proposed that Ser is a dorsal signal and that wg is a ventral signal. Their combination at the dorso-ventral interface activates the N receptor and leads to vg expression.
        vg expression in the developing wing is regulated in at least two steps, initially in a vg-independent manner at the dorso-ventral organizer, and, subsequently, in a broader domain during wing growth.
        Ectopic expression of vg causes extensive overgrowth of imaginal discs including the leg, eye and antennal discs.
        Biochemical results suggest that vg could regulate or be regulated by mitosis via an abnormal dTMP pool. vg is required for the proper pattern of expression of ap, sd and Ser.
        P-element replacement by targetted transposition has been used to generate an enhancer trap insertion into vg.
        Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs have been used to identify enhancer sequences within intron 2 of vg.
        Mutations in neurogenic genes lead to an expansion of the domains of slou and vg expression in the mesoderm and produce severe abnormalities in muscle patterning and muscle differentiation.
        Deletion analysis within the vg locus demonstrates that loss of exon 3 or exon 4 correlates with wing phenotype and female sterility.
        Phenotypic variation of the genetic components underlying oviposition behaviour is analysed using the complete diallel mating design.
        vg wild type gene product plays a key role in the regulation of nucleotide metabolism, sensitivity to chemicals is due to the dosage of vg+ alleles. Intron 2 sequences are involved in a second function of vg in dTMP regulation.
        The wg product is required to restrict the expression of the apterous gene to dorsal cells in the developing wing and to promote the expression of the vestigial and scalloped genes that demarcate the wing primordia and are required for the development of the wing proper. The pro-wing vg and sd genes regulate each other.
        3.8kb cDNA has been cloned from vg locus, and has no structural homology with known DHFR eucaryotic sequences (J.A. Williams, unpublished).
        Allele-specific suppressors of a 412-insertion allele of vg have been isolated.
        Molecular characterization of the Psc region demonstrates that aberrant vg gene expression results in abnormal bristle development.
        vg is directly involved in determining which thoracic imaginal disc cells will form wings and halteres.
        vg mutant embryos exhibit normal gap-junctional communication in the imaginal discs and normal membrane potentials.
        The products of vg and sca act in conjunction with N, in a dosage sensitive manner, to stimulate the differentiation of specific cell types.
        Functional organisation of the vg locus is determined.
        An analysis of modifiers affecting the expression of the vg mutant phenotype has been carried out.
        The mutant phenotype of four vg alleles is suppressed when the alleles are stabilised in the P-cytotype. Suppression is observed whenever repressor producing P-elements are present in the genome.
        The vestigial locus seems to be mainly involved in the development of the wing margin. The mutants are recessive viable (with or without a visible phenotype), recessive lethal, or dominant (with a visible phenotype over wild type or a vg allele); some alleles complement each other; others show pleiotropic effects or homeosis (Bownes and Roberts, 1981). In the classical vg mutants, the wings of homozygotes are reduced to vestiges and usually held at right angles to the body, the wing veins still visible. Some mutants have narrow, nicked, or scalloped wings. Halteres may be reduced or absent. Postscutellar bristles are frequently held erect. Viability is somewhat reduced; null mutants are sterile. Temperatures of 29oC or greater appreciably increase wing size (Harnly, 1936; Stanley, 1935). A suppressor of vg on the third chromosome, su(vg), results in an almost normal phenotype at 28oC, an intermediate vg phenotype at 25oC and a strong vg phenotype (in wings and especially halteres) under 20oC (David, Javellot and Touze, 1970). vg/+ heterozygotes with certain Minutes show scalloping of the wings (Green and Oliver, 1940; Simpson, Lawrence and Maschat, 1981). vg/vg/+ has scalloped wings more often than vg/+ (Green, 1946). Final size of larva is smaller than in wild type and pupation occurs slightly later. Wing discs of late larva are also somewhat smaller than in wild type (Auerbach, 1936), as are haltere discs (Chen, 1929). Goldschmidt (1935; Goldschmidt, 1937) claimed that wings are more or less fully formed and subsequently eroded by degeneration during pupation. Waddington (1939; Waddington, 1940) found no evidence of erosion and concluded that the effect of the gene occurs during the larval period and involves reduction in size of prospective wing area and shift in position of line along which wing area is folded out from the imaginal disk. Fristrom (1968), Fristrom (1969), however, using both light and electron microscopy, found numerous degenerating cells in the presumptive wing blade region of the vg wing discs, as did Bryant and Girton (1980), Bownes and Roberts (1981), Bownes and Roberts (1981), James and Bryant (1981) and O'Brochta and Bryant (1983). Duplications of the mesonotum along with deficiences of wing disk material occur in a small percentage of vg mutants (Girton and Bryant, 1980; James and Bryant, 1981).
        Origin and Etymology
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        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
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        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
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        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
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        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        vg
        (Harbison et al., 2019, Jain et al., 2018, Powers and Srivastava, 2018, Valsecchi et al., 2018, Verghese and Su, 2018, Zhu et al., 2018, Chandler et al., 2017, Erceg et al., 2017, Pimmett et al., 2017, Requena et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Beira and Paro, 2016, Corty et al., 2016, Peng et al., 2016, Ray et al., 2016, Simon et al., 2016, Auer et al., 2015, Bieli et al., 2015, Li et al., 2015, Simon and Guerrero, 2015, Wang et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Del Pino et al., 2014, Feng et al., 2014, Mouri et al., 2014, Shukla et al., 2014, Singari et al., 2014, Dai et al., 2013, Djiane et al., 2013, Ezan and Montcouquiol, 2013, Guss et al., 2013, Herrera et al., 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Maier et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Cook et al., 2012, Hodgetts et al., 2012, Legent et al., 2012, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Sui et al., 2012, Troost and Klein, 2012, Xie et al., 2012, Zhou et al., 2012, Carrasco-Rando et al., 2011, Dworkin et al., 2011, Kharchenko et al., 2011, Maier et al., 2011, Marygold et al., 2011, Okulski et al., 2011, Schönbauer et al., 2011, Slattery et al., 2011, Zhu, 2011, Deng et al., 2010, Estella and Mann, 2010, Kugler and Nagel, 2010, Mohan et al., 2010, Mukai et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Wu and Johnston, 2010, Zecca and Struhl, 2010, Baena-Lopez et al., 2009, Bernard et al., 2009, Bischoff et al., 2009, Deng et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Grieder et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Martín et al., 2009, Piddini and Vincent, 2009, Widmann and Dahmann, 2009, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Goulev et al., 2008, Guss et al., 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Maier et al., 2008, McClure et al., 2008, Pierre et al., 2008, Prince et al., 2008, Winkler et al., 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Beltran et al., 2007, Dubois et al., 2007, Félix et al., 2007, Garg et al., 2007, Hersh et al., 2007, Kugler and Nagel, 2007, Parrish et al., 2007, Rebelo and Janody, 2007, Ringrose and Paro, 2007, Umemori et al., 2007, Walsh and Carroll, 2007, Yang, 2007, Zecca and Struhl, 2007, Zecca and Struhl, 2007, Zeng et al., 2007, Baena-Lopez and Garcia-Bellido, 2006, Eissenberg, 2006, Fuwa et al., 2006, Gajewski et al., 2006, Koelzer and Klein, 2006, Legent et al., 2006, Mack et al., 2006, Mahoney et al., 2006, Martin and Morata, 2006, Molnar and de Celis, 2006, Philippakis et al., 2006, Rives et al., 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Fauny et al., 2005, Katsuyama et al., 2005, Nagel et al., 2005, Takanaka and Courey, 2005, Delanoue et al., 2004, Kamimura et al., 2004, Kreuger et al., 2004, Song et al., 2004, Gullaud et al., 2003, Micchelli et al., 2003, Delanoue et al., 2002, Kirpichenko et al., 2002, van de Bor et al., 1999)
        Name Synonyms
        vestigial
        (Ray et al., 2016, Auer et al., 2015, Newland et al., 2015, Simon and Guerrero, 2015, Lacin et al., 2014, Shukla et al., 2014, Singari et al., 2014, Dai et al., 2013, Guss et al., 2013, Herrera et al., 2013, Maier et al., 2013, McKay and Lieb, 2013, Schoborg et al., 2013, Gutiérrez et al., 2012, Hodgetts et al., 2012, Xie et al., 2012, Baker and Firth, 2011, Maier et al., 2011, Marygold et al., 2011, Oh and Irvine, 2011, Okulski et al., 2011, Schönbauer et al., 2011, Slattery et al., 2011, Zhu, 2011, Deng et al., 2010, Estella and Mann, 2010, Kugler and Nagel, 2010, Mohan et al., 2010, Mukai et al., 2010, Swaminathan and Pile, 2010, Wu and Johnston, 2010, Zecca and Struhl, 2010, Zimmerman et al., 2010, Bernard et al., 2009, Bischoff et al., 2009, Deng et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Eivers et al., 2009, Grieder et al., 2009, Martín et al., 2009, Widmann and Dahmann, 2009, Goulev et al., 2008, Guss et al., 2008, Guss et al., 2008, Maier et al., 2008, McClure et al., 2008, Prince et al., 2008, Li and Baker, 2007, Rebelo and Janody, 2007, Ringrose and Paro, 2007, Umemori et al., 2007, Walsh and Carroll, 2007, Yang, 2007, Zecca and Struhl, 2007, Zecca and Struhl, 2007, Anderson et al., 2006, Baena-Lopez and Garcia-Bellido, 2006, Bernard et al., 2006, Eissenberg, 2006, Fuwa et al., 2006, Legent et al., 2006, Martin and Morata, 2006, Maurange et al., 2006, Philippakis et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Fauny et al., 2005, Nagel et al., 2005, Takanaka and Courey, 2005, Delanoue et al., 2004, Kamimura et al., 2004, Dimitri et al., 2003, Hall, 2002, Kirpichenko et al., 2002, van de Bor et al., 1999)
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
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          References (708)