Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\z
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
zeste
Annotation Symbol
CG7803
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004050
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
zeste (z) encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. It is often found in the proximal promoter region of many genes where it helps to recruit the BRM nucleosome remodeling complex. It is best known for the pairing-dependent repressive effects produced by some of its mutants on target genes, especially the w gene. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As

EG:BACH59J11.3

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:2,447,769..2,450,550 [+]
Recombination map

1-1

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:2447769..2450550
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
POLYCOMB GROUP RECRUITERS/DNA-BINDING PROTEINS -
The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators, best characterized for the repression of Hox gene expression. In Drosophila, PcG proteins repress their target genes by binding to specific DNA elements called Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). PcG DNA binding proteins contribute to the recruitment of Polycomb complexes to PREs. (Adapted from FBrf0228921).
OTHER DNA BINDING DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The Other DNA binding domain transcription factors group is a collection of DNA-binding transcription factors that do not fit into any of the other major domain-based transcription factor groups.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Involved in transvection phenomena (= synapsis-dependent gene expression), where the synaptic pairing of chromosomes carrying genes with which zeste interacts influences the expression of these genes. Zeste binds to DNA and stimulates transcription from a nearby promoter.
(UniProt, P09956)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
z: zeste
The regulatory gene zeste interacts with the white locus as well as with the bithorax and decapentaplegic complexes, changing the phenotypic expression of these loci. z1 was the first mutant allele identified (Gans, 1948, 1953); the homo- or hemizygotes of this neomorphic mutant show a lemon yellow eye color when carrying two paired copies of w+ or of the rightmost w+ alleles [as in z1 w+/z1 w+ females or z1/Y males with a w+ duplication (Jack and Judd, 1979)]. z1 w+/Y males without the duplication, z1/z1 females heterozygous for a w allele belonging to one of the right-hand (zeste-suppressing) subloci, or z+/z1 females are wild type. An intralocus duplication for a right sublocus of white produces mottling in z1 males. z1 eye color develops autonomously in mosaics and in eye-disk transplants. It is not affected by the number of Y chromosomes in the genotype. A third chromosome mutant wo interacts with z1 or z58g to lighten eye color, producing z/z;wo/wo white-eyed females and z/Y;wo/wo males with a slight deviation from wild-type eye color (Rayle, 1969, DIS 44: 98; Kaufman et al., 1973). z1 has no effect on the expression of the white gene in ocelli, testes, or larval Malphigian tubules. The first za mutant was also identified by Gans. These mutants are wild type in za/Y males and za/za, za/Df(1)z, and z+/za females. The heteroallelic combination of z1/za, however, results in yellow-eyed flies. Complementation between wsp and other white alleles does not occur in za mutants, although it does occur in z+ or z1 flies (Babu and Bhat, 1980). za-type alleles, including zae(bx), as well as the partial revertant of z1, z11G3, enhance the mutant phenotype of certain heteroallelic combinations of BXC alleles that show transvection (partial complementation) when paired; z+ and z1, however, do not affect these BXC alleles (Kaufman et al., 1973; Gelbart and Wu, 1982; Mariani et al., 1985; Pirrotta et al., 1987). All zeste mutant alleles tested enhance certain heteroallelic mutant combinations that show transvection in dpp (Gelbart and Wu, 1982). The zop mutants (Lifschytz and Green, 1984), unlike z1, require only one copy of w+ for expression of a zeste eye color in homo- and hemizygotes. Heterozygotes over z+ are zeste if they have two copies of w+, but are wild type if there is only one copy. Another mutant, zv77h, requires only one copy of w+ in males. The eyes are brown variegated in hemi- and homozygous zv77h females and zv77h/Y males, but wild type in homozygous zv77h Dp(1;1)w+2 females and zv77h Dp(1;1)w+2/Y males, this allele responding to an increase in w+ dosage in a manner contrary to that of z1 (Green, 1984). Diepoxy-butane-induced mutations (including multilocus deletions) have been generated in an attempt to obtain a null allele of zeste (Goldberg et al., 1989). Some of the females that were completely deficient for z [Df(1)z-deb3/Df(1)z-deb3, for example] survived and were fertile, indicating that the product of the zeste gene is not required for viability or female fertility.
z1
Two synapsed copies of w+ required for expression of zeste eye color (Gans, 1953). Ocelli wild type in color, as are testes and larval Malpighian tubules. Supports transvection at Ubx but not at dpp.
z11G3
Partial revertant of z1 showing wild-type eye color in hemizygous males and homozygous females (Gans, 1953). Almost complete complementation of z1 eye color. Does not support transvection at dpp or Ubx.
za
Hemizygous males and homozygous females said to be wild type in eye color (Gans); however, on closer inspection they are seen to have a diluted eye color that becomes brown with age (Pirrotta et al., 1987). z1/za females have zeste eyes; za wDZL/za wch females have light brown eyes. Does not support transvection at dpp or Ubx.
zae(bx)
Mostly wild type, but slight eye color variegation in homozygous females (Lewis, 1959, DIS 33: 96). z1/zae(bx) females zeste. Does not support transvection at dpp or Ubx.
zop6
Eye color zeste in hemizygous males and homozygous females with only one copy of w+; homozygous females with two copies of w+ also zeste. Heterozygous z+/zop6 females wild type if one copy of w+, but zeste if two copies; zop6 reverts to weaker alleles after EMS or X rays (Lifschytz and Green, 1984).
zπ1
Hemizygous males and homo- or hemizygous females almost wild type in eye color. Supports transvection at Ubx (Pirrotta et al., 1987).
zv77h
Eye color diluted, turning brownish with age in hemizygous males and hemi- and homozygous females with a normal complement of w+ genes. za/zv77h females are wild type; z1/zv77h females are zeste; zv77h hemizygous males and homozygous females carrying a w+ duplication in each X are wild type.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - hlh domain and leucine zipper domain - trithorax group - Zeste specifically interacts with the p400 Brahma complex component - tunes the timing of ecdysone actions in triggering programmed tissue degeneration in Drosophila

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\z or the JBrowse view of Dmel\z for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.40

gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884.

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070435
2599
575
FBtr0100380
2412
575
FBtr0331161
2412
605
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.5 (northern blot)

2.4 (northern blot, longest cDNA)

2.2 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070419
62.0
575
6.70
FBpp0099792
62.0
575
6.70
FBpp0303588
65.2
605
5.67
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

575 aa isoforms: z-PA, z-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

555 (aa); 61 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Self-associates forming complexes of several hundred monomers.

(UniProt, P09956)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\z using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (10 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:mor; FB:FBgn0002783
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:p400; FB:FBgn0041729
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Bap170; FB:FBgn0042085
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The 2.4 kb z transcript is found atvery high levels in unfertilized eggs. The levels decline throughembryogenesis, but are still detectable in first and second instar larvae.Levels increase in third instar larvae, and peak once again in pupae. Thez transcript is detectable in adult males and females. A zFBtr0091350:pb-XREcol\lacZfusion protein is first detected ubiquitously at germ band extension, andpersists through the rest of embryogenesis. Ecol\lacZ activity declinesduring larval development. By early third larval instar, activity is onlyseen in the gonads, central nervous system, sections of the gut, andtissues in the larval head. Starting in climbing third instar larvae, andcontinuing until the beginning of pupation, Ecol\lacZ staining increases andis visible in Malpighian tubules, salivary glands, the ring gland andimaginal discs. In the pharate adult, the appendages, mainly the antennae,and the thoracic musculature, express Ecol\lacZ. In the adult, staining isvisible in the brain and gonads.

z transcript is detected in all developmental stages.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data

The anti-z antibody detects approximately 60 reproducible sites on larval polytene chromosomes, mostly in interband regions. In heat-shocked flies carrying a Hsp70Bb promoter-z construct, the number of sites labelled by the anti-z antibody, and the intensity of labelling, increases.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\z in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 43 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 46 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of z
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of z
Deletions and Duplications ( 76 )
Disrupted in
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
 
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D7C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508MF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X099D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    enhanceable
    enhanceable
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    suppressible
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Self-associates forming complexes of several hundred monomers.
    (UniProt, P09956 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map

    1-1

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:2,447,769..2,450,550 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    3A3-3A3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1605 and P{EP}CG32796EP1385&P{EP}EP1160
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    3A4-3A4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    3A-3A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    3A3-3A4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    3A1-3A4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (104)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (37)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for z protein in stage 11 (7.5-9.5 hr) embryos; see BDTNP1_TFBS_z collection report.

      RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

      z mutations reduce transvection at wupA.

      In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

      A proline-rich region in the z protein is essential for transvection and w repression by the z1 protein.

      When z and su(wsp) mutations are present the action of Ufo is blocked: no significant differences in eye colour detected.

      z protein is required for efficient silencing by the iab-7PRE of the Fab-7 element.

      Studies of Ubx-Ecol\lacZ promoter constructs show that binding of z protein to either the proximal enhancer of Ubx or to the BXD enhancer element of Ubx does not require the presence of the other element. However, significant transcription is observed only when both elements are present and bound by z.

      Mow changes the expression of w. The action of z on w is not interrupted by Mow, but the action of Mow is blocked by z.

      The Ubx gene has redundant cis-regulatory elements, which apparently contain binding sites for factors that share the function of the z gene product. z and Trl have an overlapping function in regulating Ubx. The z product binds at equal levels to Ubx promoter constructs (which it activates) as to the endogenous Ubx gene (which it redundantly regulates). z is significantly active in the wild-type situation.

      Three assays (z-w, wi and wing spot) are used to evaluate the genotoxic response of five chemicals classified as genotoxic non-carcinogens, chemicals significantly increase the frequency of mutant clones.

      Transvection of iab5,6,7 is z independent.

      Amorphic mutations of z are strong recessive enhancers of position effect variegation (PEV) for the w, rst and N loci. Results propose that z is important for the opening and stabilising of chromatin domains, a step in gene determination and the establishment of cell memory. Chromatin domains that have been structurally modified by chromosomal rearrangement or by insertion of a transposable element are particularly sensitive to the absence or modification of the z protein.

      z blocks the action of Wow on w, but only in the most extreme cases.

      The effect of mutations in the z locus on mutagenesis in the y2ns scme double superunstable system has been analysed.

      z gene product functions as part of a complex that stimulates transcription by changing chromatin conformation to establish and maintain transcriptionally active domains.

      In vivo crosslinking has been used to directly measure DNA binding of z. z protein binds to short DNA elements within a target promoter, no binding was seen to non-target genes.

      The assembly of the z gene product into multimeric forms is an orderly, stepwise process which can be arrested at intermediate stages by mutations affecting the integrity or configuration of heptad repeats. The formation of large aggregates is strictly correlated with the ability to suppress w gene expression in the eye. Direct interactions between z protein molecules in vivo as well as in vitro have been demonstrated.

      The z protein binds to DNA in a highly cooperative manner which depends on its ability to form multimers which can interact simultaneously with multiple recognition sequences. The DNA binding domain alone is insufficient for stimulation of w, suggesting that another region of the protein is required for proper function in vivo.

      There is considerable overlap of chromosomal binding sites for Psc, Su(z)2, z, Pc and the polyhomeotic proteins.

      In vitro studies of mutated and deleted z proteins indicate that a sequence in the z protein that resembles the DNA recognition helix of homeodomain proteins is essential for DNA binding activity. The C-terminal domain of the z protein is responsible for the extensive aggregation properties of the z protein that are required for its role in transvection phenomena.

      Mutations of y strongly enhance the effect of z mutations on w expression.

      z directly and potently activates Ubx transcription in vivo.

      Measurements of the activity of GTP cyclohydrolase demonstrate a much lower level of substrate utilization in z-eyed flies than in wild type flies.

      Molecular analysis has identified z binding sites in the eye, but not the testes, enhancer of the w gene. Overlap of these sites is responsible for the z-w interaction.

      The unstable z-w assay was used to compare mutation rates in germinal and somatic cells. Formaldehyde and methylmethane sulphonate induce mutations in larval and adult feeding in somatic and germinal cells: methylmethane sulphonate causes an elevated frequency of mutations in somatic and germinal cells and formaldehyde only causes somatic mutations.

      The mutagenicity of the antifungal preservative methyl p-hydrobenzoate has been analysed using the z eye spot test.

      z-w assay is highly sensitive to carcinogenic compounds.

      ZESTE genetic test system is used to investigate whether chrysotile and amosite asbestos induces germ-line aneuploidy - both asbestos have germ-line effects.

      Dichloroacetonitrile, not dibromoacetonitrile, is an effective inducer of aneuploidy in oocytes using the ZESTE genetic test system.

      FIX and ZESTE systems permit rapid and efficient detection of exceptional offspring derived from aneuploid female germ cells. The system differs in response to different chemicals.

      ZESTE system is used to monitor induction of sex chromosome aneuploidy following inhalation exposure to nitriles - nitriles disrupt chromosome segregation in oocytes.

      When z is effective against w the Inr-a interaction is blocked.

      z interacts with w in an eye specific manner.

      zeste deleted females have a dull reddish/brown eye colour. Despite the eye colour morphology is normal, females are fertile with almost normal levels of fecundity to give zeste deficient progeny. P elements carrying a wild type copy of z were able to rescue the mutant eye colour to wild type, but did not correct lowered viability. Results suggest that z may not be essential for the viability or female fertility.

      Sequence elements present in the region from 1.1 to 1.9kb upstream from the 5' end of the w transcript are required for the interaction of w with z.

      Novel class of z mutations have been selected and analyzed.

      Inversions, translocations and transpositions with breaks in 3C3, induced as derivatives of z1 chromosomes carrying tandem duplications of w+, result in a range of zeste phenotypes in males and females, the eye colors being zeste, zeste variegated, zeste halo and wild type (Green, 1967; Green, 1984). E(z) and Su(z) loci have been described (Green, 1967; Kalisch and Rasmuson, 1974; Persson, 1976).

      The regulatory gene zeste interacts with the white locus as well as with the bithorax and decapentaplegic complexes, changing the phenotypic expression of these loci. z1 was the first mutant allele identified (Gans, 1948; Gans, 1953); the homo- or hemizygotes of this neomorphic mutant show a lemon yellow eye color when carrying two paired copies of w+ or of the rightmost w+ alleles <up>as in z1 w+/z1 w+ females or z1/Y males with a w+ duplication (Jack and Judd, 1979)</up>. z1 w+/Y males without the duplication, z1/z1 females heterozygous for a w allele belonging to one of the right-hand (zeste-suppressing) subloci, or z+/z1 females are wild type. An intralocus duplication for a right sublocus of white produces mottling in z1 males. z1 eye color develops autonomously in mosaics and in eye-disk transplants. It is not affected by the number of Y chromosomes in the genotype. A third chromosome mutant wo interacts with z1 or z58g to lighten eye color, producing z/z;wo/wo white-eyed females and z/Y;wo/wo males with a slight deviation from wild-type eye color (Rayle, 1969; Kaufman et al., 1973). z1 has no effect on the expression of the white gene in ocelli, testes, or larval Malpighian tubules. The first za mutant was also identified by Gans. These mutants are wild type in za/Y males and za/za, za/Df(1)z, and z+/za females. The heteroallelic combination of z1/za, however, results in yellow-eyed flies. Complementation between wsp1 and other white alleles does not occur in za mutants, although it does occur in z+ or z1 flies (Babu and Bhat, 1980). za-type alleles, including zae(bx), as well as the partial revertant of z1, z11G3, enhance the mutant phenotype of certain heteroallelic combinations of BXC alleles that show transvection (partial complementation) when paired; z+ and z1, however, do not affect these BXC alleles (Kaufman et al., 1973; Gelbart and Wu, 1982; Mariani et al., 1985; Pirrotta et al., 1987). All zeste mutant alleles tested enhance certain heteroallelic mutant combinations that show transvection in dpp (Gelbart and Wu, 1982). The zop mutants (Lifschytz and Green, 1984), unlike z1, require only one copy of w+ for expression of a zeste eye color in homo- and hemizygotes. Heterozygotes over z+ are zeste if they have two copies of w+, but are wild type if there is only one copy. Another mutant, zv77h, requires only one copy of w+ in males. The eyes are brown variegated in hemi- and homozygous zv77h females and zv77h/Y males, but wild type in homozygous zv77h Dp(1;1)w+2 females and zv77h Dp(1;1)w+2/Y males, this allele responding to an increase in w+ dosage in a manner contrary to that of z1 (Green, 1984). Diepoxy-butane-induced mutations (including multilocus deletions) have been generated in an attempt to obtain a null allele of zeste (Goldberg, Colvin and Mellin, 1989). Some of the females that were completely deficient for z <up>Df(1)z-deb3/Df(1)z-deb3, for example</up> survived and were fertile, indicating that the product of the zeste gene is not required for viability or female fertility.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 70 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBtr0070435
      • FBpp0070419
      Datasets (2)
      Study focus (2)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • bait_protein
      ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      References (414)