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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\bs
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
blistered
Annotation Symbol
CG3411
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004101
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
DSRF, SRF, pruned, D-SRF, Drosophila Serum Response Factor
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:24,342,861..24,376,473 [+]
Recombination map
2-106
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MADS-BOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The MADS box transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They have a conserved MADS-box motif. The N-terminal half of the motif has the DNA-binding specificity while the C-terminal half required for dimerisation. MADS-box proteins specifically recruit other transcription factors into multi-component regulatory complexes. (Adapted from PMID:7744019).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the formation of intervein tissue of the wing. Acts in a dosage-dependent manner to suppress wing vein formation and promote development of intervein cells. Might play a role in the proper formation and maintenance of the trachea.
(UniProt, Q24535)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
bs: blistered
thumb
bs2: blistered-2
Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Wings blistered, small, pointed; venation thick and plexus-like with branches from and parallel to L5 beyond second crossvein, where there is a semidominant free vein effect. Temperature sensitive. RK2 at 19; RK3 at 25.
ba: balloon
thumb
ba: balloon
From Bridges and Morgan, 1919, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 278: 148.
Wings at first inflated with hemolymph to produce blisters and vesicles; venation weak, plexus like; wings smaller, warped, discolored, and divergent. Effect caused by inadequate contraction of epithelium after inflated state of pupal wing [Waddington, 1940, J. Genet. 41: 75-139 (fig.)]. Sensitive to temperature. RK3 above 25; RK2 at 19 or below.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - MADS-box motif - required for vein/intervein formation in the fly wing - implicated in longer forms of memory formation like synaptic long-term potentiation and depression - required for a working memory that lasts only for a few seconds - acts as a boosting mechanism to sustain FGF-induced terminal branching in the tracheal system.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\bs or the JBrowse view of Dmel\bs for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.42
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072271
2221
449
FBtr0290089
3792
355
FBtr0343314
3062
449
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072178
47.6
449
7.06
FBpp0288528
38.7
355
9.33
FBpp0309973
47.6
449
7.06
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

449 aa isoforms: bs-PA, bs-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\bs using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002100
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR033897
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
bs transcripts are expressed ubiquitously in unfertilized eggs. The RNA fades away during germ band extension and zygotic expression is not detected until germ band retraction. At stage 14, expression is observed just beneath the epidermis in a cluster of 6-9 cells in the most anterior portion of each hemisegment from T2 to A8. Expression is also observed in the head, in two rows of cells along the midgut and in a single cell in each hemisegment of the CNS. Other sites include 1 to 2 cells in the dorsal part of each hemisegment from T to A6, cells along the pharyngeal muscle and along the hindgut. In late embryos, weaker expression is observed in somatic muscles.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
wing pouch

Comment: NOT presumptive wing veins, NOT dorsal/ventral compartment boundary

Additional Descriptive Data
bs protein is expressed in the wing cell (intervein) region of the wing disc; expression is excluded from the presumptive wing veins and presumptive wing margin.
Expression of bs occurs in the intervein tissue of the developing pupal wing in a pattern complementary to that of ve.
Well defined staining of crossveins is observed by 23-26 hr APF.
bs protein is expressed ubiquitously in unfertilized eggs. The protein fades away during germ band extension and zygotic expression is not detected until germ band retraction. At stage 14, expression is observed just beneath the epidermis in a cluster of 6-9 cells in the most anterior portion of each hemisegment from T2 to A8. Expression is also observed in the head, in two rows of cells along the midgut and in a single cell in each hemisegment of the CNS. Other sites include 1 to 2 cells in the dorsal part of each hemisegment from T2 to A6, cells along the pharyngeal muscle and along the hindgut. In late embryos, weaker expression is observed in somatic muscles. Using double staining techniques, it was shown that all of the cells that express bs strongly are tightly associated with the tracheal system.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4}bs1348
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\bs in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
follicle cell & actin filament | somatic clone
wing & macrochaeta
wing vein L3 & sensillum campaniformium
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (92)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
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Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CNB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150D4C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0AWF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0ATH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0X24 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    suppressible
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-106
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:24,342,861..24,376,473 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    60C6-60C7
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Nop60Bk05318 and P{PZ}bs03267&P{lacW}l(2)k10502k10502
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    60C6-60C8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    60C-60C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (31)
    Genomic Clones (24)
    cDNA Clones (295)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: bs CG3411
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    May be part of a pseudoallelic complex with Px.
    Other Comments
    RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
    bs is involved in cell fate allocation and differentiation but does not participate in cell proliferation. The activity of bs is necessary to specify cells to adopt an intervein fate. It expression is repressed in larval stages in vein territories by genes of the Ras signalling pathway. The differentiation of vein and intervein depends on the outcome of a balance between bs and rho activities, achieved during pupal stages.
    bs regulates formation of the terminal branches of the tracheal system. bs may function like mammalian SRF in an inducible transcription complex. Activation of the complex by signals from target tissues induces expression of genes involved in cytoplasmic outgrowth.
    The bs gene product plays a dual role during wing differentiation. It acts in a dosage-dependent manner to suppress the formation of wing veins and is required cell-autonomously to promote the development of intervein cells. bs acts at a key step between regulatory genes that define the early positional values in the developing wing disc and the subsequent localized expression of intervein-specific structural genes.
    Required for the formation and outgrowth of the terminal branches of the tracheal system.
    The bs gene might play a role in the proper formation and maintenance of the trachea.
    Developmental and genetic analyses suggest that the bs product is required during metamorphosis for the initiation of intervein development and the concommitant inhibition of vein development.
    bs may affect dorsal-ventral flattening of the wing during prepupal morphogenesis.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Bridges, 16th Nov. 1911.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 52 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (37)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Serf
    l(2)03267
    Name Synonyms
    Drosophila serum response
    Drosophila serum response factor
    blistered/DSRF
    blistered/Drosophila serum response factor
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0000156
    • FBgn0000223
    • FBgn0010354
    • FBgn0010535
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (293)