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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\oc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
ocelliless
Annotation Symbol
CG12154
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004102
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

otd, orthodenticle, Otx, ort, orthodentical

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:8,630,159..8,650,681 [-]
Recombination map

1-23

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:8630159..8650681
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the paired homeobox family. (P22810)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PAIRED-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Paired-like (PRD-like) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. PRD-like transcription factors lack a paired domain but possess a homeodomain characteristic of the paired homeobox transcription factors. Some members also possess an Engrailed Homology 1 (EH1) and/or an OAR motif near the C-terminus. (Adapted from FBrf0232555 and FBrf0106517).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcriptional regulator involved in pattern formation and cell determination in the embryonic CNS and larval imaginal disks. Also later in development to coordinate the expression of regulatory and structural genes required for photoreceptor cell fate in the ocelli. Has a dual role in the terminal differentiation of subtypes of photoreceptors by regulating rhodopsin (rh) expression: essential for establishing the expression of rh genes in the pale subset of ommatidia as well as repressing Rh6 in outer photoreceptors.
(UniProt, P22810)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
oc: ocelliless
thumb
oc: ocelliless
"Edith M. Wallace, unpublished."
Ocelli completely absent. Bristles in ocellar area and on top of head irregular and more numerous; postverticals usually absent. Eyes somewhat reduced and body size dwarfed. Phototaxis normal (Benzer, 1967, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 1112-19). Viability about 90% wild type. oc and deficiencies for oc show partial dominance to oc+; ocelli placed somewhat far back on head and slight indentation apparent between postvertical bristles (Craymer and Roy, 1980, DIS 55: 204). Eggs from oc1 homozygotes have defective chorions and abnormal beta yolk spheres (Johnson and King, 1974, Int. J. Insect. Morphol. Embryol. 3: 385-95). Sterility is due to the presence of In(1)oc, one breakpoint of which disrupts oc, and the other of which interferes with amplification of the chorion-protein genes Cp36 and Cp38 (Spradling and Mahowald, 1981, Cell 27: 203-09). oc1 in heterozygous combination with non-complementing lethal alleles survives and is female fertile. Ubl/+ enhances dominance of oc; Df(1)RA2/+ exhibit delayed hatch and an oc phenotype; oc2/+ display strong oc phenotype, and oc1/oc1 are lethal in combination with Ubl/+ (Mortin and Lefevre, 1981, Chromosoma 82: 237-47). Lethal alleles (recovered as otd: orthodenticle) die as embryos; all denticles in anterior abdominal segments point posteriorly; defects at ventral midline; head defects. Also cause embryonic neural defects (Finkelstein et al., 1990): In developing ventral cord, commissures within each segment appear fused. At the cellular level, certain ventral unpaired medial (VUM) neurons do not seem to migrate ventrally (as do the normal VUMs at approximately 14 hours of embryogenesis) and are absent from most segments. Other "midline-associated" neurons are missing as well in otd-type embryos. Homozygous germ-line clones survive in females; homozygosity for lethal alleles in germ-line clones without effect on survival of heterozygous offspring or on phenotype of hemizygotes (Wieschaus and Noell). Putative oc transcript abundant in embryos, peaking between 4 and 13 hours, before and coincident with neural-developmental defects observed in central nervous system of embryos hemizygous for lethal alleles; there is also putative maternally derived oc mRNA (which could be alternately spliced form of the "major" transcript). Northern signals weaken in L1 and L2, are still detectable in early pupae, but are absent in late pupae and adults. In situ hybridization reveals earliest embryonic expression at cellular blastoderm; later, signals seen in a longitudinal strip along ventral midline, then in "head region" and in developing ventral cord.
ocdb: ocelliless-disturbed bristles
Ocelliless; ocellar, interocellar, and postvertical bristles variably extra, missing, or misplaced with about 80% penetrance; acts as a non complementing oc allele.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - homeodomain - paired-like - acts in a combinatorial fashion with the cephalic gap genes and to assign segmental identities in the head and brain

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\oc or the JBrowse view of Dmel\oc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697

Stop-codon suppression (UAG) postulated; FBrf0216884, FBrf0234051.

Gene model reviewed during 6.25

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0300106
4949
542
FBtr0331305
4435
542
FBtr0331306
4747
539
FBtr0331737
4967
548
FBtr0331738
4668
542
FBtr0474137
4949
664
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0289383
55.2
542
9.64
FBpp0303737
55.2
542
9.64
FBpp0303738
54.8
539
9.64
FBpp0304126
55.8
548
9.41
FBpp0304127
55.2
542
9.64
FBpp0423136
68.0
664
8.50
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

542 aa isoforms: oc-PC, oc-PD, oc-PG
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Domain

Contains multiple repeats consisting of single amino acids (e.g. Gly, Ser, His, and Asn) and pairs of amino acids (e.g. Gly-Val).

(UniProt, P22810)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\oc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR017970
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (24 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (18 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:toy; FB:FBgn0019650
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred by curator from GO:0001228
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ventral midline

Comment: reference states 5-13 hr AEL

in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data

In stage 11 embryos, oc transcript is detected in a restricted pattern in the brain. It is absent from the primordia of the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis.

oc transcripts are expressed at roughly 70-90% egg length in the cellular blastoderm embryo. Beginning at gastrulation, expression retreats from the ventral midline but persists in a major portion of the deuterocerebral and protocerebral neurectoderm forming a horshoe domain that overlaps with the tll expression domain. Expression persists at stage 9 in a broad domain that covers most of the protocerebral domain of the head.

The oc transcript is expressed in a dynamic pattern during embryonic development. Early on, it is expressed in the anterior 20% of the embryo, and the posterior boundary is not well defined. As development proceeds, the posterior boundary of oc expression becomes very well defined and expression begins to receed from the ventral region, and is restricted from the ventral most domain of the embryo. Just before germ band extension, oc expression is restricted from the anterior most region of the embryo and confined to a broad stripe between 5% and 15% egg length. Following germ band extension, oc expression is detected in the procephalic regions and is then detected along the developing ventral midline.

The oc transcript is expressed in a faint broad stipe between 10% and 25% egg length in the anterior region of the cellular blastoderm.

oc transcripts are detected from early embryonic stages until late pupation with the highest levels occurring between 4hr and 13hr of embryogenesis. In cellular blastoderm embryos, oc expression occurs in a broad circumferential stripe at the anterior end of the embryo. After gastrulation, oc expression persists in the procephalic head region and is also seen in cells along the ventral midline.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

oc protein is expressed in all photoreceptor cells from the third larval instar onwards, and is maintained throughout photoreceptor cell development.

oc protein is expressed in the DL2-2 neuron at early first instar larval stage. At mid-late third instar, it is specifically expressed in the four DL2a DA neurons. In adults, oc protein expression is detected in the PPL2 cluster of DA neurons.

oc and toy colocalize in the embryonic eye primordium.

Starting at embryonic stage 12, oc is expressed in the region of the optic lobe primordium that will give rise to the precursors of the larval photoreceptors and is expressed in all photoreceptors throught embryonic and larval stages.

oc (otd) protein is expressed in a broad domain covering the antennal and ocular segments of embryonic stage 9-11 procephalic neurectoderm. In addition there is a restricted zone of expression in the ventral portion of the procephalic neurectoderm in theintercalary segment and in cells on the dorsal midline of the embryonic head. Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - v1; deuterocerebrum - d1-3, d6, v3, v5-6; protocerebrum - ad2, ad4, ad15, ad17, av1, cd1-17, cv2-9, pd1-16, pd18, pd20, pv1-3

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{HZ50PL-1.1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{HZ50PL-1.5}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{HZ50PL-2.6}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{oc-GAL4.1.6}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\oc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 29 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 28 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of oc
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of oc
Deletions and Duplications ( 23 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
embryonic brain & commissure
embryonic head & ganglion
frons & macrochaeta
ocellus & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
 
7 of 15
No
Yes
 
 
5 of 15
No
Yes
 
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
4 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190G4G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AJD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0AU8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0K9K )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 4 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Dmel gene
Ortholog showing functional complementation
Supporting References
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map

1-23

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:8,630,159..8,650,681 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
7F10-8A1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG1632EP1583 and P{EP}MoeEP1652
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
8A1-8A2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (71)
Genomic Clones (24)
cDNA Clones (24)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     

    monoclonal

    polyclonal

    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    The noc and elB paralogs interact with hth to correctly specify the photoreceptors which detect polarised light at the dorsal rim of the retina, being involved in specifying both morphological and molecular fate. noc and elB also antagonise the transcriptional activator and repressor functions of oc in the retina through distinct protein domains.

    Five EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.

    Expression of wg and oc throughout the entire second instar eye-antennal disc confers a default fate of dorsal vertex cuticle. Activation of dpp expression in the posterior eye disc eliminates wg and oc expression, thereby permitting eye differentiation.

    tll expression in brain neuroblasts is examined and it is demonstrated that the expression is not detectably regulated by btd, oc, l(1)sc or tll itself.

    The primary target genes of Egfr are pnt, vnd and Fas3, these are induced in different ectodermal domains. Secondary target genes oc, argos and trn are activated by pnt in response to Egfr signalling. The proper induction of these genes requires the concomitant inactivation of aop, mediated by Egfr signalling.

    High levels of bcd morphogen are not required for oc activation. The terminal system contributes to oc activation in the head primordium. Repression of oc expression at the anterior terminus of the blastoderm is mediated by hkb and requires input from all three maternal morphogens that specify embryonic head development.

    Gsc expression is controlled by dpp, oc, slp1/slp2 and tll.

    hh and wg specify the identities of specific regions of the head capsule. During eye-antennal disc development hh and wg expression initially overlap, but subsequently segregate. This regional segregation is critical to head specification and is regulated by oc. oc is a candidate hh target gene during early eye-antennal disc development.

    Most metazoan homeodomains share a preference for the TAAT motif, they can differ from each other in their preference for the bases immediately 3' to this core. This preference is determined, in part, by the identity of amino acid position 50. Because homeodomain sequences have been identified that possess at least 10 different amino acids at position 50 it is investigated whether multiple DNA binding specificities can be conferred by changing this position to a variety of amino acid side chains.

    oc is required for photoreceptor cell development in the developing eye.

    oc and ems are required for brain segmentation in the embryo.

    Progressive reduction of oc activity causes graded loss of structures along the mediolateral axis of the head. en is a candidate oc target gene in ocelli formation.

    The role of oc in the regulation of run mRNA expression in the early embryo has been investigated.

    Activation of cnc in intercalary and mandibular primordia requires zygotic gap gene products, activation by btd and repression by oc (anteriorly) or sna (ventrally).

    Superunstable mutations generated in crosses of π2 strain to a wa strain or its derivatives. Each superunstable mutation gives rise to a large family of new super-unstable mutations with a wide range of phenotypic expression. Mutations with the same phenotype often differ in the specificity of their potential for further mutation. Each superunstable mutation is associated with a specific, "paired", reversible mutation. Active transposase encoded by P elements is necessary to maintain superinstability. X transposable element is also implicated in the mutability system.

    The requirement for oc during postblastoderm stages has been studied.

    oc has a gap-gene-like role in mediating the development of head structures. In oc mutant embryos the posterior border of gt stripe 1 and all of stripe 2 are shifted posteriorly. oc is positively regulated by bcd.

    Mutations in zygotic gene oc interact with RpII140wimp.

    btd, ems and oc are required to establish contiguous blocks of segments and may behave like gap genes that mediate bcd function in the embryonic head.

    oc expression during embryogenesis and in bcd and tor mutant embryos has been studied.

    Molecular and phenotypic characterization of oc indicates that oc is necessary for the formation of the CNS.

    A number of super-unstable mutations at the oc locus have been studied.

    Mutagenesis in strains carrying unstable mutations at the oc locus has been studied.

    One mutation in oc is due to insertion of a Stalker element.

    A screen for X-linked genes that affect embryo morphology revealed oc.

    oc mutants display anterior denticle belts pointing posteriorly, defects at the ventral midline and head defects.

    Relationship of oc to otd indicated by co-mapping (cf. Spradling and Mahowald, 1981; Wieschaus et al., 1984) and the failure of otd-type alleles to complement oc (Finkelstein et al., 1990). Moreover, otd/+ females have altered adult bristle pattern in ocellar region, similar to that exhibited by homozygotes for the weak allele ocdb (Finkelstein, Smouse, Capaci, Spradling and Perrimon, 1990).

    Ocelli completely absent. Bristles in ocellar area and on top of head irregular and more numerous; postverticals usually absent. Eyes somewhat reduced and body size dwarfed. Phototaxis normal (Benzer, 1967). Viability about 90% wild type. oc and deficiencies for oc show partial dominance to oc+; ocelli placed somewhat far back on head and slight indentation apparent between postvertical bristles (Craymer and Roy, 1980). Ubl/+ enhances dominance of oc; Df(1)RA2/+ exhibit delayed hatch and an oc phenotype; oc2/+ display strong oc phenotype and oc1/oc1 are lethal in combination with Ubl/+ (Mortin and Lefevre, 1981). Lethal alleles (recovered as otd: orthodenticle) die as embryos; all denticles in anterior abdominal segments point posteriorly; defects at ventral midline; head defects. Also cause embryonic neural defects (Finkelstein, Smouse, Capaci, Spradling and Perrimon 1990): In developing ventral cord, commissures within each segment appear fused. At the cellular level, certain ventral unpaired medial (VUM) neurons do not seem to migrate ventrally (as do the normal VUMs at approximately 14 hours of embryogenesis) and are absent from most segments. Other 'midline-associated' neurons are missing as well in otd-type embryos. Homozygous germ-line clones survive in females; homozygosity for lethal alleles in germ-line clones without effect on survival of heterozygous offspring or on phenotype of hemizygotes (Wieschaus and Noell, 1986). Putative oc transcript abundant in embryos, peaking between 4 and 13 hours, before and coincident with neural-developmental defects observed in central nervous system of embryos hemizygous for lethal alleles; there is also putative maternally derived oc mRNA (which could be alternately spliced form of the 'major' transcript). Northern signals weaken in L1 and L2, are still detectable in early pupae, but are absent in late pupae and adults. In situ hybridization reveals earliest embryonic expression at cellular blastoderm; later, signals seen in a longitudinal strip along ventral midline, then in 'head region' and in developing ventral cord.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
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    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 49 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
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    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
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    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
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    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
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    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
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    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(1)7Ff
    l(1)8Ac
    otd
    (Sullivan, 2019, Magri et al., 2018, Johnson et al., 2017, Reichert, 2017, Yan et al., 2017, Bernardo-Garcia et al., 2016, Mishra et al., 2016, Skottheim Honn et al., 2016, Mencarelli and Pichaud, 2015, Sen et al., 2014, Hong et al., 2013, Jukam et al., 2013, Jukam et al., 2013, Mishra et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Weasner and Kumar, 2013, Andrioli et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Fichelson et al., 2012, He et al., 2012, He et al., 2012, Terrell et al., 2012, Blanco et al., 2011, Brockmann et al., 2011, Gehring, 2011, He et al., 2011, Johnston et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Perry et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Blanco et al., 2010, Hartmann et al., 2010, Mishra et al., 2010, Porcher and Dostatni, 2010, Steinmetz et al., 2010, Triphan et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Blanco et al., 2009, Goering et al., 2009, Huh et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Morante and Desplan, 2008, Schetelig et al., 2008, Sprecher and Desplan, 2008, Xie et al., 2008, Yucel et al., 2008, Amin and Li, 2007, de Velasco et al., 2007, Fichelson and Pichaud, 2007, Goering et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Urbach, 2007, Xie et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Lunardi and Vignali, 2006, McGregor, 2006, Yucel and Small, 2006, Zinzen et al., 2006, Amin, 2005, Crauk and Dostatni, 2005, Levine and Davidson, 2005, Lichtneckert et al., 2005, McGregor, 2005, Meier and Wimmer, 2005, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2005, Reeves et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Ball et al., 2004, De Velasco et al., 2004, Donaldson et al., 2004, Ephrussi and St. Johnston, 2004, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Reiner and Wullimann, 2004, Stern and Beckendorf, 2004, Urbach and Technau, 2004, Vignali et al., 2004, Wernet and Desplan, 2004, Amin, 2003, Andrioli et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2003, Cook, 2003, Hirth et al., 2003, Hirth et al., 2003, Lifanov et al., 2003, Lynch et al., 2003, Makeev et al., 2003, Rudel and Sommer, 2003, Shuker et al., 2003, Urbach and Technau, 2003, Urbach and Technau, 2003, Wimmer et al., 2003, Amin and Finkelstein, 2002, Berman et al., 2002, Buckley, 2002, Desplan et al., 2002, Kenyon and Pignoni, 2002, Montalta-He et al., 2002, Montalta-He et al., 2002, Oh et al., 2002, Reischl et al., 2002, Simeone et al., 2002, Tallafuss and Bally-Cuif, 2002, Zhao et al., 2002, Acampora et al., 2001, Adachi et al., 2001, Amin and Finkelstein, 2001, Chang et al., 2001, Chang et al., 2001, Haas et al., 2001, Hartmann et al., 2001, Janody et al., 2001, Montalta-He et al., 2001, Radke et al., 2001, Wernet et al., 2001, Acampora et al., 2000, Chang et al., 2000, Galliot and Miller, 2000, Janody et al., 2000, Janody et al., 2000, Lammel and Saumweber, 2000, Lee and Garfinkel, 2000, Nagao et al., 2000, Nguyen et al., 2000, Reischl and Wimmer, 2000, Schock et al., 2000, Sonneville et al., 2000, Acampora and Simeone, 1999, Acampora et al., 1999, Arendt and Nubler-Jung, 1999, Crozatier et al., 1999, Dong et al., 1999, Galliot et al., 1999, Golembo et al., 1999, Hirth and Reichert, 1999, Hirth et al., 1999, Hummel et al., 1999, Hummel et al., 1999, Lee et al., 1999, Reichert and Simeone, 1999, Shandala et al., 1999, Tear, 1999, Wiellette et al., 1999, Acampora et al., 1998, Finkelstein et al., 1998, Fuss and Hoch, 1998, Gallitano-Mendel and Finkelstein, 1998, Gao and Finkelstein, 1998, Gao and Finkelstein, 1998, Leuzinger et al., 1998, Mailhos et al., 1998, Nagao et al., 1998, Nakagoshi et al., 1998, Pick, 1998, Schnepp et al., 1998, Sharman and Brand, 1998, Tsai et al., 1998, Williams and Holland, 1998, Yarnitzky et al., 1998, Andrew et al., 1997, Gao and Finkelstein, 1997, Knoblich, 1997, Li and Finkelstein, 1997, Luer et al., 1997, Menne et al., 1997, Nagao et al., 1997, Nakachi et al., 1997, Perrimon and Perkins, 1997, Reichert and Boyan, 1997, Rogers and Kaufman, 1997, Royet and Finkelstein, 1997, Rudolph et al., 1997, Wiellette and McGinnis, 1997, Wimmer et al., 1997, Yin et al., 1997, Younossi-Hartenstein et al., 1997, Arendt and Nuebler-Jung, 1996, Bellaiche et al., 1996, Gabay et al., 1996, Gallitano-Mendel and Finkelstein, 1996, Gao et al., 1996, Golembo et al., 1996, Golembo et al., 1996, Goriely et al., 1996, Lawrence and Struhl, 1996, Purnell and Jäckle, 1996, Reichert et al., 1996, Reichert et al., 1996, Rivera-Pomar et al., 1996, Royet and Finkelstein, 1996, Treisman, 1996, van den Dries et al., 1996, Wilson et al., 1996, Wimmer et al., 1996, Xiao et al., 1996, Courey and Huang, 1995, Dickinson, 1995, Finkelstein and Royet, 1995, Gallitano et al., 1995, Harbecke and Lengyel, 1995, Hirth et al., 1995, Mohler, 1995, Roark et al., 1995, Royet and Finkelstein, 1995, Schmidt-Ott et al., 1995, Schweitzer et al., 1995, Thor, 1995, Wimmer et al., 1995, Duffy and Perrimon, 1994, Edgar et al., 1994, Finkelstein and Boncinelli, 1994, Manak and Scott, 1994, Rothe et al., 1994, Salz et al., 1994, Simeone et al., 1994, Simpson-Brose et al., 1994, Tsai and Gergen, 1994, Driever, 1993, Gehring, 1993, Goodman and Doe, 1993, Gutjahr et al., 1993, Jackle and Sauer, 1993, Jurgens and Hartenstein, 1993, Klingler and Gergen, 1993, Mohler, 1993, Noll et al., 1993, Pankratz and Jäckle, 1993, Simeone et al., 1993, Vandendries and Reinke, 1993, Grueneberg et al., 1992, Holland et al., 1992, Matsuzaki et al., 1992, Treisman et al., 1992, Wieschaus et al., 1992, Cohen and Jurgens, 1991, Eldon and Pirrotta, 1991, Finkelstein and Perrimon, 1991, Green and Smith, 1991, Klambt et al., 1991, Lipshitz, 1991, Nusslein-Volhard, 1991, Riddihough and Ish-Horowicz, 1991, Treisman et al., 1991, Vandendries and Reinke, 1991, Cohen and Jurgens, 1990, Finkelstein and Perrimon, 1990, Finkelstein et al., 1990, Finkelstein et al., 1989, Perrimon et al., 1989, Tearle and Nusslein-Volhard, 1987, Wieschaus et al., 1984)
    Name Synonyms
    Ocelliless
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0002979
    • FBgn0003021
    Datasets (0)
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    References (474)