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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Nrt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Neurotactin
Annotation Symbol
CG9704
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004108
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Carboxylesterase (3.1.1.1)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
dab, BP106, disabled, Neur
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:16,766,072..16,777,465 [+]
Recombination map
3-44
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
A carboxylic ester + H(2)O = an alcohol + a carboxylate (3.1.1.1)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
May mediate or modulate cell adhesion between embryonic cells during development.
(UniProt, P23654)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Nrt: Neurotactin (J.C. Hall)
Three monoclonal antibodies selected because of binding to presumptive imaginal neurons within the larval central nervous system (CNS) (de la Escalera et al., 1990) and an additional one found by virtue of binding to neuronal surfaces in embryos (Hortsch et al., 1990) detected the same ca. 135 kd protein on Western blots of homogenates from embryos, late larva, and pupae. The membrane-bound material is called neurotacin (NRT) because of its expression at points of interneuronal cell contact. Antibody staining (de la Escalera et al., 1990, Hortsch et al., 1990) shows concentration of the protein in dorsal and ventral portions of embryonic blastoderm (where staining appears cell surface-limited), all over gastrulating embryos (although Hortsch et al., 1990, imply a somewhat more restricted expression pattern), in the "proliferating" CNS (including neuroblasts and their progeny) of stage 10-11 embryos, and in regions of contact between neuroblasts. In visceral mesoderm (stage 13), non-neuronal expression diminishes, although it is seen on fat body cells and the "dorsal vessel"; intense staining continues in embryonic CNS (but is relatively weak in axons of motor neurons); PNS expression is evident as well (seemingly restricted to sensory cells that send out multiple dendritic projections, and, in fact, PNS cell-body signals are weaker than on dendrites); cell-surface expression apparent in the various expressing tissues during mid-embryogenesis; in early L1, NRT signals decay but reappear in CNS (in optic formation centers and in neuron clusters and associated axons in ventral cord); the protein's expression persists in imaginal neurons through mid-pupal stage, wanes as such cells complete maturation, and is undetectable in adults. L3 imaginal discs are NRT positive (e.g. on developing chordotonal neurons of leg discs and in developing photoreceptor cells plus their axons, posterior to the morphogenetic furrow). Cell culture studies, including electron-microscope observations (Barthalay et al., 1990), suggest further that NRT is a "contact molecule" between neurons or epithelial cells; there is uniform expression along intercellular contact areas; non-adhesive Schneider-2 cells, transfected with Nrt cDNA, do not become self adhesive, but these cells bind to a subpopulation of embryonic cells.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transmembrane serine esterase homolog - Mutations in frequently cause defasciculation of the normally tightly associated ocellar pioneer axons
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Nrt or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Nrt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075323
3177
846
FBtr0075322
4158
846
FBtr0304018
3523
846
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.25, 3.65, 3.2 (northern blot)
4.7, 3.7, 3.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075082
92.8
846
4.94
FBpp0075081
92.8
846
4.94
FBpp0292987
92.8
846
4.94
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

846 aa isoforms: Nrt-PA, Nrt-PB, Nrt-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
846 (aa); 135 (kD observed); 93 (kD predicted)
Comments
The region of the Nrt protein extracellular domain sufficient for cell adhesion was mapped to between His347 on the border of the transmembrane domain and His482. A three dimensional model of the Nrt protein extracellular domain was made based on the structure of Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which suggests that it consists of two sub-domains organized around a gorge. The 3D structure of the N-terminal domain is almost identical to that of Torpedo AChE. Chimeric molecules in which the cholinesterase-like domain of Nrt protein was replaced by homologous domains from either Ace, Torpedo AChE, or Glt have similar adhesive properties to Nrt. This may depend on the cytoplasmic domain of Nrt since Ace by itself does not show adhesive properties when transfected into S2 cells.
Nrt protein is phosphorylated in intact embryonic cells. It was shown to mediate heterophilic cell-cell recognition between transfected S2 cells and embryonic cells.
The extracellular domain at the C-terminal end of Nrt protein shows a strong structural and sequence homology to serine esterases without retaining the sequence of the active center. Nrt protein is glycoslyated.
Nrt protein is inserted in the membrane with the N-terminus localized in the cytoplasm and the C-terminus extracellularly.
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Nrt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000168392
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Abl; FB:FBgn0000017
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000168732
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

endoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Nrt protein was experimentally shown to be an integral membrane protein. It has a type II conformation with its N-terminus facing the cytoplasm and the C-terminus facing the extracellular space.
Protein is first observed in the golgi basal to the nuclei in embryonic cycle 13. At cellularization the protein becomes concentrated at the apical invaginating membrane and later is detected in the lateral membrane.
Nrt protein accumulates in the membranes of neurons and their progeny. Extensive protein accumulation is observed in the CNS between embryonic stages 12 and 16. Analysis of serial sections shows strong accumulation of Nrt protein in growing axon tracts but not in motor axons exiting the CNS. Some heterogeneity in the distribution in the cell cortex is seen. It is unclear if Nrt protein accumulates in the growth cones because of the widespread accumulation in cell bodies. In the embryonic PNS, Nrt protein is detected only in the polyinnervated sensory organs. In the pupal PNS, it is expressed by ocellar pioneer neurons but not by the neurons of neighboring bristles. It is also expressed by photoreceptors and some sensory neur ns in the wing.
Nrt protein was experimentally shown to be a transmembrane protein. It is expressed preferentially at the junctions between cells.
Nrt protein is detected in all developmental stages by Western blots with peaks in embryos and early pupae. Nrt protein is first detected by immunolocalization in two regions of stage 5 embryos. By gastrulation, it extends throughout the embryo except at the pole cells. High levels persist in mesoderm and mesectoderm through stages 9-10. A new wave of expression appears in the visceral mesoderm during stage 13. Other mesodermal derivatives that express Nrt protein are the fat body and dorsal vessel. Strong expression is seen in the proliferating CNS in stages 10 and 11 in both neuroblasts and their progeny. Protein accumulates preferentially in neuroblast surfaces in contact with other neural cells rather than epidermis. High levels continue during cytodifferentiation and persist until the 1st larval instar. In stage 13, the early uniform staining in the ectoderm is replaced by staining in some PNS structures. These are the head sensory organs, the spiracle sensory organ in the tail region, and a single cell cluster per segment in the trunk. By stage 16, weak staining in other sensory organs in the thoracic and abdominal segments is seen. Staining is also observed in the amnioserosa from early on. Nrt protein decays after larval hatching but reappears in the CNS. It is found in the optic centers and in the ventral cord. It persists in imaginal neurons in the first half of the pupal period and then disappears gradually. Nrt protein is also detected in the eye disc and the wing disc. In the eye disc, it is found in photoreceptor cells. In the wing disc, it is present at high levels in cells that will give rise to the wing margin and is also detected in cells that will give rise to intervein regions.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Nrt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Nrt
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Nrt
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (22)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (16)
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (13)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (37)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903W8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501MS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01OP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0C53 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (34)
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-44
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:16,766,072..16,777,465 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    73C3-73C4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Baldspot02281 and P{PZ}blot01658
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    73C1-73C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (14)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (214)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    monoclonal, polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: Nrt BcDNA:LD22004
    Additional comments
    All five mutations originally thought to be lesions in the Dab gene (see FBrf0049327, FBrf0058531 and FBrf0084025) are actually lesions in the Nrt gene, the alleles are: NrtM2, NrtM29, NrtM54, NrtM100 and NrtM221.
    Source for merge of Nrt BcDNA:LD22004 was sequence comparison ( date:990717 ).
    FlyBase curator comment: in FBrf0058531, the NrtM2 allele is stated to be due to a lesion in the Dab gene, since four copies of a rescue construct containing Dab sequences (P{Dab.G}) rescue the lethality of NrtM2 Df(3L)st-j7/Abl1 animals. However this has subsequently been shown to be an error (see FBrf0162067) - the NrtM2 allele is actually due to a lesion in the Nrt gene.
    Other Comments
    Nrt is required during axon outgrowth, fasciculation and guidance.
    Factor(s) mediating Nrt-dependent cell adhesion exist(s) in a soluble and a membrane-bound form. A region of the Nrt extracellular domain is sufficient for cell adhesion. Cholinesterase-like domains may functionally replace the Nrt extracellular domain for adhesion properties.
    In vitro fusion of the homologous extracellular domain of Egfr and Glt to the Nrt cytoplasmic domain can mediate aggregation of cells incubated with a soluble crude fraction containg Nrt ligand activity. The binding site for the Nrt ligand is localised within the extracellular domain. A stretch of 25 amino acids forms an alpha-helix located close to the pseudocatalytic site and is crucial for the adhesive function.
    Nrt is hypothesized to require Ama as its ligand.
    fax encodes a novel protein that is not necessary for viability in an otherwise wild type genetic background. A requirement for fax is observed upon reduction or loss of Abl or Nrt.
    Genetic screens for dominant second site mutations that interact genetically with Abl have identified mutations in Nrt.
    Induction of Nrt in transfected Schneider S2 cells is capable of mediating cell adhesion in a heterophilic manner.
    Mutations in Nrt act as dominant genetic enhancers of Abl mutations.
    Nrt has been cloned and characterised.
    Embryos homozygous for either of the two Nrt- deletions used by de al Escalera et al. (1990) do not exhibit any 'extra' gross abnormalities of the CNS. Deletion of regions just distal to Nrt <up>i.e. Df(3L)st100.62 or Df(3L)st-e5</up> leads to defects in axonal patternings (because of the absence of the abl and dab genes in 73B, cf. Gertler, Bennet, Clark and Hoffman, 1989), but the further removal of Nrt+ does not make this phenotype worse (de la Escalera, Bockamp, Moya, Piovant and Jimenez, 1990).
    Three monoclonal antibodies selected because of binding to presumptive imaginal neurons within the larval central nervous system (CNS) (de la Escalera, Bockamp, Moya, Piovant and Jimenez, 1990) and an additional one found by virtue of binding to neuronal surfaces in embryos (Hortsch, Patel, Bieber, Traquina and Goodman, 1990) detected the same ca. 135kD protein on Western blots of homogenates from embryos, late larva and pupae. The membrane-bound material is called neurotactin (NRT) because of its expression at points of interneuronal cell contact. Antibody staining (de la Escalera, Bockamp, Moya, Piovant and Jimenez, 1990; Hortsch, Patel, Bieber, Traquina and Goodman, 1990) shows concentration of the protein in dorsal and ventral portions of embryonic blastoderm (where staining appears cell surface-limited), all over gastrulating embryos (although Hortsch, Patel, Bieber, Traquina and Goodman, 1990 imply a somewhat more restricted expression pattern), in the 'proliferating' CNS (including neuroblasts and their progeny) of stage 10-11 embryos and in regions of contact between neuroblasts. In visceral mesoderm (stage 13), non-neuronal expression diminishes, although it is seen on fat body cells and the 'dorsal vessel'; intense staining continues in embryonic CNS (but is relatively weak in axons of motor neurons); PNS expression is evident as well (seemingly restricted to sensory cells that send out multiple dendritic projections, and, in fact, PNS cell-body signals are weaker than on dendrites); cell-surface expression apparent in the various expressing tissues during mid-embryogenesis; in early L1, NRT signals decay but reappear in CNS (in optic formation centers and in neuron clusters and associated axons in ventral cord); the protein's expression persists in imaginal neurons through mid-pupal stage, wanes as such cells complete maturation and is undetectable in adults. L3 imaginal discs are NRT positive (e.g. on developing chordotonal neurons of leg discs and in developing photoreceptor cells plus their axons, posterior to the morphogenetic furrow). Cell culture studies, including electron-microscope observations (Barthalay, Hipeau-Jacquotte, de la Escalera, Jimenez and Piovant, 1990), suggest further that NRT is a 'contact molecule' between neurons or epithelial cells; there is uniform expression along intercellular contact areas; non-adhesive Schneider-2 cells, transfected with Nrt cDNA, do not become self adhesive, but these cells bind to a subpopulation of embryonic cells.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    The "M2" and "M29" mutations isolated in FBrf0049327 were named "disabled" alleles to indicate their genetic interaction with Abl and the effect of the mutations, in an Abl mutant background, on the embryonic central nervous system.
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:LD22004
    Nrt BP106
    l(3)73Be
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (265)