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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Tm2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Tropomyosin 2
Annotation Symbol
CG4843
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004117
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

TmI, Ifm(3)3, Tropomyosin, Tm, mTmI

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:15,310,193..15,315,197 [+]
Recombination map

3-56

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:15310193..15315197
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the tropomyosin family. (P09491)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Tropomyosin, in association with the troponin complex, plays a central role in the calcium dependent regulation of muscle contraction. May also regulate motor systems required to maintain nuclear integrity and apico-basal polarity during embryogenesis.
(UniProt, P09491)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ifm(3)5, Ifm(3)6
Homozygotes for Ifm(3)5 and Ifm(3)6 display characteristic departures from wild-type protein patterns in two-dimensional gels (Mogami and Hotta, 1981). Ifm(3)5 homozygotes lack myofibrils; Ifm(3)6 homozygotes have opaque strings of myofibrils. Both mutants are flightless as heterozygotes. The myofibrils of Ifm(3)6 heterozygotes are frayed.
l(3)nc99Eb
Homozygous lethal; heterozygous flightless; interacts semilethally with heterozygous deficiency for Mlc2, i.e., Df(3R)99D3-E3.
Tm2: Tropomyosin 2 (J.C. Hall)
Structural gene for tropomyosin that is active in particular muscle lineages in late embryos and adult flies (Basi et al., 1984). A dominant flightless mutant lfm(3)3 was induced by Mogami and Hotta (1981); this mutant, which was unable to jump or fly, turned out to be a Tm2 allele, Tm23. Although arranged in sarcomeres, the myofibrils of Tm23 are structurally weak (Karlik and Fyrberg, 1986). The flightless phenotype can be rescued by P-element mediated transformation with two copies of the wild-type allele of Tm2 (Fyrberg and Karlik, 1987); the ability to jump can be restored with one copy of Tm2+ (Tansey et al., 1987).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Tm2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Tm2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083078
1228
284
FBtr0083079
1655
284
FBtr0083080
1980
284
FBtr0333920
1892
284
FBtr0339530
1200
284
FBtr0345212
1145
284
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.9, 1.7, 1.6, 1.3 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082535
32.8
284
4.44
FBpp0082536
32.8
284
4.44
FBpp0089270
33.0
284
4.47
FBpp0306048
32.8
284
4.44
FBpp0308613
32.8
284
4.44
FBpp0311407
32.8
284
4.44
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

284 aa isoforms: Tm2-PA, Tm2-PB, Tm2-PE, Tm2-PF, Tm2-PG
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

284 (aa); 34 (kD predicted)

Comments

Tm2 is a fusion protein of tropomyosin and a highly proline-rich sequence. An 80kD Tm2 was identified in asynchronous flight muscle of Drosophila where it is detected both by antibodies against troponin and antibodies against the hydrophobic sequence of Lethocerus Tn-H.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer.

(UniProt, P09491)
Domain

The molecule is in a coiled coil structure that is formed by 2 polypeptide chains. The sequence exhibits a prominent seven-residues periodicity.

(UniProt, P09491)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Tm2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (6 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000443979
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000443979
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001059856
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000443979
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Tm2 is enriched in border follicle cells relative to follicle cells.

At embryonic stage 15, Tm2 transcript is expressed in the ventral, pleural and dorsal somatic body wall muscles.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Tm2(B)lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Tm2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 26 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Tm2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Tm2
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
No
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
No
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
No
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
10 of 12
Yes
No
9 of 12
No
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
11 of 15
Yes
No
11 of 15
Yes
No
11 of 15
Yes
No
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
9 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190E04 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508MG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0AGX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0E0L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0UO7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
6 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 7 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer.
(UniProt, P09491 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-56

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:15,310,193..15,315,197 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
88E13-88E13
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}MRG15j6A3 and P{PZ}l(3)0653606536
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
88E11-88E13
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
88F2-88F5
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location

3-54.2

Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes

Closely linked to Tm1.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (9)
Genomic Clones (19)
cDNA Clones (276)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: Tm2 CG4843

Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments

Haploinsufficient locus (not associated with strong haplolethality or haplosterility).

The Tm2 gene encodes standard muscle tropomyosins, isoforms 127 and 129.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.

Mutation analysis and protein binding studies of the muscle activator (MA) region identifies cis-acting elements and protein binding sites that may regulate MA function.

Pdp1 is involved in regulating expression of Tm2 gene in the somatic body wall and pharyngeal muscles by binding to DNA sequences within the muscle activator that are required for activator function.

Tm2 is a target gene for Mef2 regulation, proximal and distal muscle enhancers within the first intron of Tm2 contain a Mef2 binding site. Mef2 is a positive regulator of Tm2 gene transcription that is necessary but not sufficient for high level expression in somatic muscle of the embryo, larva and adult.

Regulation of Tm1 expression during myogenesis is under the control of at least two muscle enhancer regions within the Tm1 first intron. The distribution of muscle enhancer elements and their control is similar to those regulating the expression of Tm2.

Comparative studies with other insects, and with synchronous and asynchronous flight muscles, suggest that troponin-H is not sufficient for stretch activation of flight muscles but it may enhance stretch activation.

Two forms of troponin-H are present in aynchronous flight muscle.

Tm1, muscle promoter of Tm2, Act57B and Mlc2 are not transcribed by embryonic extracts. The contractile protein genes may possess a common feature that prevents their in vitro transcription.

A region within intron 1 of Tm2 is necessary and sufficient for directing muscle-specific expression of Tm2 in the adult fly.

The flightless phenotype can be rescued by P-element mediated transformation with two copies of the wild-type allele of Tm2.

The ability to jump can be restored with one copy of Tm2+.

Troponin-H is a fusion protein of tropomyosin and a highly proline-rich sequence. In direction of increasing cytology: Tm1+ Tm2+ Act88F+

A dominant flightless mutant 'Ifm(3)3' which was unable to jump or fly, turned out to be a Tm2 allele, Tm23.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 59 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (26)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Ifm(3)5
l(3)nc99Eb
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0002442
  • FBgn0003722
  • FBgn0003724
  • FBgn0026830
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (171)