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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\up
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
upheld
Annotation Symbol
CG7107
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004169
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
upheld (up) encodes the striated muscle protein Troponin T. Troponins T, C and I form a regulatory complex with Tropomyosin that is found at regular intervals along the thin (F-actin) filaments of the muscle sarcomere. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As

TnT, troponin T, TpnT, troponin-T, int

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:13,593,474..13,602,578 [-]
Recombination map

1-44

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:13593474..13602578
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the troponin T family. (P19351)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Troponin T is the tropomyosin-binding subunit of troponin, the thin filament regulatory complex which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity.
(UniProt, P19351)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
int: indented thorax
80-85% of int flies hold wings ventrolaterally, 10% hold them vertically and the remainder maintain normal wing position. In many flies mesonotum indented to variable degree and at various positions; 85% in flies raised at 29 and 45% when raised at 18. More extreme expression in y flies; partially dominant in y genotypes. Fate mapping indicates focus in presumptive thoracic musculature. Indirect flight muscle structure badly deranged, Z-bands disappear as muscles degenerate; also lose a 54k protein. int/int adults flightless and unable to jump; int/+ adults normal.
up: upheld (J.C. Hall)
Wings held upright and mutants unable to jump or fly when homo- or hemizygous. The indirect flight muscles of the thorax are abnormal, with many mitochondria in the muscle fiber envelopes but with defective myofibrils (Hotta and Benzer, 1972; Deak, 1977); electron microscope and electrophoresis studies indicate that these muscles lack internal structure in the Z-bands and Z-band proteins (Fekete and Szidonya, 1979; Mogami et al., 1981). Although wings are held in normal position, wild-type heterozygotes of certain mutant alleles are unable to jump or fly; their muscles contain half the normal amount of Z-band proteins. Fate maps of the behavioral and morphological foci of up and up2 indicate that the gene has its site of action in the presumptive musculature of the ventral mesoderm (Hotta and Benzer, 1972; Deak, 1977). Viability and fertility of up is good. RK1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
18
Number of Unique Polypeptides
15

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\up or the JBrowse view of Dmel\up for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Gene model reviewed during 5.42

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073851
1525
397
FBtr0073852
1573
389
FBtr0073853
1684
306
FBtr0100561
1456
374
FBtr0100563
1522
396
FBtr0301919
1456
374
FBtr0301920
1525
397
FBtr0301921
1501
389
FBtr0301922
1522
396
FBtr0301923
1570
388
FBtr0308233
1453
373
FBtr0308234
1629
394
FBtr0310136
1597
397
FBtr0310137
1522
396
FBtr0310138
1498
388
FBtr0340617
1546
388
FBtr0340618
1696
388
FBtr0345131
1413
306
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.9 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073682
47.4
397
4.31
FBpp0073683
46.6
389
4.30
FBpp0073684
36.5
306
4.30
FBpp0100013
44.8
374
4.36
FBpp0100015
47.3
396
4.31
FBpp0291133
44.9
374
4.37
FBpp0291134
47.5
397
4.31
FBpp0291135
46.7
389
4.31
FBpp0291136
47.4
396
4.32
FBpp0291137
46.5
388
4.32
FBpp0300553
44.8
373
4.37
FBpp0300554
47.2
394
4.62
FBpp0301821
47.5
397
4.32
FBpp0301822
47.4
396
4.31
FBpp0301823
46.5
388
4.30
FBpp0309481
46.5
388
4.30
FBpp0309482
46.5
388
4.30
FBpp0311352
36.5
306
4.30
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

306 aa isoforms: up-PD, up-PT
388 aa isoforms: up-PQ, up-PR, up-PS
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

396, 387, 373 (aa)

Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

Some glutamate residues are polyglycylated by TTLL3B. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglycine chains on the gamma-carboxyl group.

(UniProt, P19351)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\up using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (17 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000162487
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000162487
(assigned by GO_Central )
contributes_to tropomyosin binding
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000162487
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000162487
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000162487
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR027707
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000162487
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000162487
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000162487
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

up is enriched in border follicle cells relative to follicle cells.

The 1.9 kb up transcript is found in developmental stages where muscles are forming, namely during mid to late embryogenesis, in mid to late pupae, and in adults.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\up in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 13 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of up
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of up
Deletions and Duplications ( 13 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
mitochondrion & flight muscle
myosin filament & indirect flight muscle
striated muscle thin filament & indirect flight muscle
Z disc & indirect flight muscle
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190DOI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091509JF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0AJ2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0AFI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0G1D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 4 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map

1-44

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:13,593,474..13,602,578 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
12A7-12A7
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG1640EP1626 and P{EP}NFATEP1353&P{EP}NFATEP1508
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
12A3-12A3
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location

1-41.0 +/- 0.5

1-43.5

Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes

Mapping based on up 'int' alleles.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (7)
Genomic Clones (7)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (178)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: up BcDNA:LD08591

Additional comments

Source for merge of up BcDNA:LD08591 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

Other Comments

ChEST reveals this is a target of Mef2.

The Hrp59 protein binds preferentially to a subset of mRNAs, including up mRNA.

The genomic organisation of the up locus has been characterised.

Viability and fertility of up is good.

Alleles of up show intracistronic non-complementation with the "raised" allele, Act88F8.

Fate mapping of up mutants suggests their primary site of action is in the presumptive thoracic musculature.

Electron microscope and electrophoresis studies indicate that these muscles lack internal structure in the Z-bands and Z-band proteins.

Wings held upright and mutants unable to jump or fly when homo- or hemizygous. The indirect flight muscles of the thorax are abnormal, with many mitochondria in the muscle fiber envelopes but with defective myofibrils; which contain half the normal amount of Z-band proteins.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 138 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
BcDNA:LD08591
Name Synonyms
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0001267
  • FBgn0003955
  • FBgn0047222
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (177)