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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Ser
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Serrate
Annotation Symbol
CG6127
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004197
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
Bd, Beaded, Rpw
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:27,172,090..27,194,267 [-]
Recombination map
3-92
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Notch Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604). Core pathway components are required for signaling from the sending cell and response in the receiving cell.
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NOTCH LIGANDS -
Notch (N) receptor ligands are single-pass transmembrane proteins that possess EGF repeats and, with the exception of the atypical Notch ligand, wry, an N-terminal DSL (Delta, Serrate and LAG-2) domain. (Adapted from FBrf0192604 and FBrf0210603).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Acts as a ligand for Notch (N) receptor. Essential for proper ectodermal development. Serrate represents an element in a network of interacting molecules operating at the cell surface during the differentiation of certain tissues.
(UniProt, P18168)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Bd: Beaded
thumb
Bd: Beaded
From Bridges and Morgan, 1923, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 327: 152.
Originally recovered alleles were recessive lethal with a dominant incised-wing phenotype; Bd1 was very weak and highly variable when first recovered, but gained expressivity with selection; subsequently isolated alleles were stronger. Wings reduced by marginal excision both anteriorly and posteriorly. Phenotype of Bd1/Bd1/+ extreme (Peter Lewis). Expression and interaction studied by Goldschmidt and Gardner [1942, Univ. Calif. (Berkeley) Publ. Zool. 49: 103-24]. Expression of Bd1, Bd3, and BdS suppressed by H (DIS 9) and Ax alleles (Bang). In combination with several different Minutes, causes incomplete development of anal and genital imaginal discs in males and less frequently in females (Goldschmidt, 1948, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 34: 245-52; Sturtevant, 1949, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 35: 311-13). BdS (originally designated Ser: Serrate) homozygous viable; initially thought to be homozygous lethal, but lethality removable by recombination (Belt, 1971, DIS 46: 116). The closely linked recessive lethal persists in many BdS-bearing chromosomes. Recessive lethal alleles, which lack the dominant wing phenotype, recovered as revertants of BdS (symbolized BdSrv) or selected on the basis of their failure to complement the lethality of Bd3 (symbolized Bdr). Allelism of Bdr1 (originally designated std: serratoid) inferred from enhanced wing incising in heterozygotes with BdS and genetic map position similar to that of BdS; homozygous viability unknown. Cuticle preparations of embryos homozygous for BdS revertants reveal lack of germband retraction, improper deposition of cuticle, lack of head and thoracic structures, lack of Filzkorper, and in severe cases, only a remaining patch of cuticle (either ventral or dorsal). Central-nervous-system defects revealed by anti-horseradish peroxidase preparations include breaks in the longitudinal and/or commissure nerve tracts, twisted or unretracted nerve tracts, only a single nerve tract, and occasionally only the presence of groups of staining cells scattered throughout the embryo (Fleming, et al.). Each BdSrv allele displays the whole range of embryonic phenotypes but the proportions of individuals with a particular phenotype varies between alleles.
BdS: Beaded-Serrate
thumb
BdS: Beaded-Serrate
Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Wings of BdS/+ and BdS/Df(3R)Ser notched at tip; deepest notch at second posterior cell. In triploids, one dose of BdS overlaps wild type. BdS is homozygous viable; initially thought to be homozygous lethal, but lethality removable by recombination (Belt, 1971, DIS 46: 116); the closely linked recessive lethal persists in many BdS-bearing chromosomes. Homozygous BdS produces extreme incision of wing margins especially in second posterior cell (Belt, 1971). As with other Bd alleles expression suppressed by H and Ax (Bang).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transmembrane - EGF homolog - ligand for Notch - involved in the induction, through Notch, of the wing margin at the dorsal-ventral interface of the wing imaginal disc - a Serrate-Notch-Canoe complex mediates essential interactions between glia and neuroepithelial cells during Drosophila optic lobe development.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Ser or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Ser for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085128
5559
1407
FBtr0344121
5831
1407
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
5.9, 5.6, 5.2, 4.5, 2.5 (northern blot)
5.6, 5.5, 3.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084498
150.8
1407
7.11
FBpp0310538
150.8
1407
7.11
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1407 aa isoforms: Ser-PA, Ser-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1408 (aa); 150 (kD)
Comments
If the first AUG is used, the protein is 1443aa. The second AUG has a better match to the Cavener consensus.
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Ubiquitinated by mind-bomb, leading to its endocytosis and subsequent degradation.
(UniProt, P18168)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Ser using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:N; FB:FBgn0004647
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VUX2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001881, InterPro:IPR018097
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002371879
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (18 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011651
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 2-4 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Ser protein is localized the membrane of epithelial glial cells, and accumlulates at the surface in contact with neuroepithelial cells. Ser protein is not detected in neuroepithelial cells.
Ser protein is present on myogenic cell membranes.
Ser is expressed at both sides of the DV boundary and along the longitudinal veins.
During the third larval instar, the expression of Ser protein is re- solved into a complex pattern that includes two stripes of expression dorsal and ventral to the wing margin and ex- pression domains on the ventral and dorsal wing blades, including prospective wing veins 3–5.
Ser protein is first observed in stage 11 embryos in the clypeolabrum anlage and later in the hypopharyngeal lobe. These regions later form the roof and floor of the pharynx. In late stage 11, expression is observed in a ring of cells surrounding the stomodeum which come to lie in the anterior part of the proventriculus. Beginning in stage 11, a metameric pattern of expression is seen in the epidermis. Expression is also observed in the gnathal segments and in the anlage of the anal pads. From stage 12 onward, two defined regions of expression are apparent in the hindgut . From stage 13 onward, expression is observed in the two main lateral trunks of the tracheal system and in the anterior and posterior spiracles. Expression is detected in the secretory ducts of the salivary glands and on the ventral side of the frontal sac from stage 14 onward. Finally, from stage 15 onward, expression is observed in the anterior and posterior commissures of each segment as well as in the roots of the segmental nerves and in some axons in the brain. In wing imaginal discs, expression is observed in a row of cells located across the wing pouch, in three stripes perpendicular to it, and in some regions at the border of the wing disc. These regions correspond to the future wing margin and anlage of the alula.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Ser.10-lacZ.Y}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ser-GAL4.BS}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ser-GAL4.GF}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ser-lacZ.I-2.2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ser-lacZ.II-9.5}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Ser in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 41 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 48 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Ser
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Ser
Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
actin filament & larval salivary gland
anterior dorsocentral bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
anterior notopleural bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
anterior postalar bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
anterior scutellar bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
anterior supraalar bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
denticle row 3 & abdominal 2 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 3 & abdominal 3 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 3 & abdominal 4 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 3 & abdominal 5 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 3 & abdominal 6 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 3 & abdominal 7 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 3 & abdominal 8 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 4 & abdominal 2 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 4 & abdominal 3 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 4 & abdominal 4 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 4 & abdominal 5 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 4 & abdominal 6 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 4 & abdominal 7 ventral denticle belt
denticle row 4 & abdominal 8 ventral denticle belt
eye photoreceptor cell & eye disc, with Scer\GAL4h-H10
eye photoreceptor cell & eye disc | posterior, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
leg & joint
macrochaeta & scutellum | supernumerary | somatic clone | cell autonomous, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
macrochaeta & thorax | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC
macrochaeta & thorax | supernumerary, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
macrochaeta & thorax | supernumerary | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC
macrochaeta & wing, with Scer\GAL4h-540.3
macrochaeta & wing, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
posterior dorsocentral bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
posterior notopleural bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
posterior postalar bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
posterior supraalar bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
presutural bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
scutum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096
scutum & macrochaeta & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4l(3)31-1-31-1
tarsal segment 1 & joint
tarsal segment 2 & joint
tarsal segment 3 & joint
tarsal segment 4 & joint
tarsal segment 5 & joint
wing & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1
wing & macrochaeta | dorsal, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (29)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
13 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (29)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (26)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (15)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (32)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (31)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900PW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150235 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01ZD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01WX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0A88 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (13)
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
Notch Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604). Core pathway components are required for signaling from the sending cell and response in the receiving cell.
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map
3-92
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:27,172,090..27,194,267 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
97E6-97E8
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sda03884 and P{PZ}btzrL203
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
97F-97F
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
97F1-97F2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (7,372)
Genomic Clones (26)
cDNA Clones (29)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    May be allelic to Ndw.
    Other Comments
    Ser is required autonomously in the glia to regulate their proliferation.
    A Ser-N-cno complex mediates essential interactions between glia and neuroepithelial cells in optic lobe development.
    One of 42 Drosophila genes identified as being most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to human Mental Retardation disorders.
    A Ser expressing signalling centre in the lymph gland may control haematopoiesis.
    Glycosylation of the N protein domain 'EGF12' is necessary for fng to inhibit the activation of N signalling by Ser but is not necessary for Ser binding to N.
    The secreted proteins encoded by hh, wg and dpp are expressed in the peripodial membrane yet they control the expression of Dl and Ser in the disc proper.
    Ser is a strong candidate for the peripodial to columnar signal demonstrated to be important in eye development.
    EGF-like repeats 11 and 12, the RAM-23 and cdc10/ankyrin repeats and the region C-terminal to the cdc10/ankyrin repeats of the N protein are necessary for both Dl and Ser proteins to signal via N. Dl and Ser utilise EGF-like repeats 24-26 of N for signalling, but there are significant differences in the way they utilise these repeats.
    The composite signalling of the Ser and Dl genes through N patterns the segments of the leg, leading to the development of leg joints.
    In cultured cells, heterotypic interactions between N protein and the ligands Dl and Ser have higher affinities than homotypic interactions between Dl protein molecules.
    Candidate gene for quantitative trait locus.
    Local activation of N is necessary and sufficient to promote the formation of joints between segments of the leg. This segmentation process requires the participation of Ser, Dl and fng.
    Ser is required for the normal morphogenesis of the abdominal denticle belts and maxillary mouth hooks in the embryo.
    Ser is not required for the initiation of wing development, but rather for the expansion and early patterning of the wing primordium.
    ap mediates cell interactions across the DV axis of the wing by regulating the expression of Ser and fng. In ap mutants the wing is lost, this phenotype can be rescued by ectopic expression of either Ser or fng and the resulting wings have both dorsal and ventral cell fates.
    Dl and Ser are redundant N signals required for asymmetric cell divisions within the sensory organ lineage.
    Genetic combinations with mutants of nub cause additive phenotypes.
    Ser does not signal in the dorsal regions of the developing imaginal wing disc due to the action of the fng gene product. Ectopic expression studies reveal the regulation of Ser by fng occurs at the level of protein and not Ser transcription.
    Ser ligand binding to N is a necessary but insufficient step toward N activation.
    Ser determines vg expression domains in the wing pouch.
    The activities of Ser and Dl during wing development are studied. Ser can activate or inactivate N in a concentration-dependent manner. While inactivation is likely to be mediated by a dominant negative effect over N, the activation is similar to that elicited by Dl and requires the product of the Su(H) gene. Results indicate that regulation of the concentration of Ser during development must be an important way of regulating its activity.
    wg is required indirectly for ct expression, results suggest this requirement is due to the regulation by wg of Dl and Ser expression in cells flanking the ct and wg expression domains. Dl and Ser play a dual role in the regulation of ct and wg expression.
    Ser and Dl maintain each other's expression in the wing by a positive feedback loop. fng functions to position and restrict this feedback loop to the developing dorsal-ventral boundary.
    The secreted forms of the Dl and Ser gene products are antagonists of N signalling in the developing eye and wing.
    The combined effect of N and its target genes ct and wg regulate the expression of N ligands Dl and Ser which restrict N signalling to the wing dorsoventral boundary.
    N-expressing cells in a given compartment have different responses to Dl and Ser. Dl and Ser function as compartment-specific signals in the wing disc, to activate N and induce downstream genes required for wing formation.
    Dl and Ser have clearly distinct capabilities when ectopically expressed during wing development; Dl always acts as a strong activator of N and induces wing outgrowth and margin formation, Ser mediates activation of N only under certain circumstances and even acts as an inhibitor of N under other conditions.
    Ser expression can e used to follow salivary duct development.
    Ser activity is not essential for proper eye development. Intracellularly truncated forms of Ser and Dl behave as dominant-negative proteins in an apparently non-cell autonomous manner. The presence of intracellular domains is essential for proper N ligand function in the eye.
    Ser and Dl, two N ligands, have asymmetrical requirements at the dorsal-ventral boundary during wing development.
    Induction of vg requires the combined activities of Ser, wg and N. Based on the patterns of expression and requirements for Ser and wg during initiation wing development it is proposed that Ser is a dorsal signal and that wg is a ventral signal. Their combination at the dorso-ventral interface activates the N receptor and leads to vg expression.
    Localised expression of Ser in dorsal wing cells provides the signal to activate wg.
    Ser can replace Dl gene function during embryonic neuroblast segregation and expression of Ser leads to N-dependent suppression of ac expression in proneural clusters. Results suggest that Ser functions as an alternative ligand capable of N activation.
    Clonal analysis of Ser loss of function alleles suggests a non-autonomous role for the Ser product, consistent with its proposed function as a ligand for the N receptor.
    Compartmentalization of the wing disc, dorsal cell behaviour and the expression of two dorsally expressed putative signalling molecules, fng and Ser, are regulated by the ap selector gene. fng and Ser are distinct components of a single ap-regulated cell recognition and signal induction mechanism. Clonal analysis demonstrates that fng serves as a boundary-determining molecule such that Ser is induced wherever cells expressing fng and cells not expressing fng are juxtaposed.
    vg is required for the proper pattern of expression of ap, sd and Ser.
    Wild type function of Ser is required for the control of position-specific cell proliferation during development of meso- and metathoracic dorsal discs, which in turn exerts a direct effect on morphogenesis.
    The phenotypes of the Abruptex class of N allele are modified by mutations at Ser, Dl, H and gro.
    Mutations at Ser share phenotypes with mutations at sno, and genetic interactions indicate that sno, Ser and N function in common pathways.
    A new allele of Notch, NM1, has been isolated that behaves genetically as both an antimorph and a loss of function allele: genetic interactions with Delta and Serrate alleles of the Beaded locus suggest that NM1 products have modified binding abilities with both Dl and Bd products.
    The dominant Ser mutation causes a gap in the posterior wing tip and margin and a portion of the blade. The phenotype of homozygous Ser flies ranges from deep incisions of the wing to gaps in the wing margin. Ser is a wing margin mutation that interacts synergistically with ct. Double mutants with ct46l and ct53d have extreme phenotypes and suffer tissue loss at the wing tip which is not seen in the single mutants. Ser has no effect on ctL32 mutants as they have already lost the wing tip tissue.
    Analysis of mosaic females indicates that Ser, ea, snk and tub are expressed in the germline during oogenesis.
    Phenotypic interactions of Ser alleles with the neurogenic mutations in N and Dl together with the structural similarity of the proteins encoded by the genes suggest close interactions at the protein level.
    Ser is an essential EGF-like protein.
    Mutant individuals display notched wing tips.
    "Maps to the right of ro: 2.1" was stated as revision. "Maps to the right of Pr: 1.5" was stated as revision.
    Originally recovered alleles were recessive lethal with a dominant incised-wing phenotype; SerBd-1 was very weak and highly variable when first recovered, but gained expressivity with selection; subsequently isolated alleles were stronger. Wings reduced by marginal excision both anteriorly and posteriorly. Phenotype of SerBd-1/SerBd-1/+ extreme (Peter Lewis). Expression and interaction studied by Goldschmidt and Gardner (1942). Expression of SerBd-1, SerBd-3 and Ser1 suppressed by H (Bridges, 1938) and Ax alleles (Bang). In combination with several different Minutes, causes incomplete development of anal and genital imaginal discs in males and less frequently in females (Goldschmidt, 1948; Sturtevant, 1949). Ser1 (originally designated Ser: Serrate) homozygous viable; initially thought to be homozygous lethal, but lethality removable by recombination (Belt, 1971). The closely linked recessive lethal persists in many Ser1-bearing chromosomes. Recessive lethal alleles, which lack the dominant wing phenotype, recovered as revertants of Ser1 (symbolized "SerSrv") or selected on the basis of their failure to complement the lethality of SerBd-3 (symbolized Bdr). Allelism of SerBd-r1 (originally designated std: serratoid) inferred from enhanced wing incising in heterozygotes with Ser1 and genetic map position similar to that of Ser1; homozygous viability unknown. Cuticle preparations of embryos homozygous for Ser1 revertants reveal lack of germband retraction, improper deposition of cuticle, lack of head and thoracic structures, lack of Filzkorper and in severe cases, only a remaining patch of cuticle (either ventral or dorsal). Central-nervous-system defects revealed by anti-horseradish peroxidase preparations include breaks in the longitudinal and/or commissure nerve tracts, twisted or unretracted nerve tracts, only a single nerve tract and occasionally only the presence of groups of staining cells scattered throughout the embryo (Fleming et al., 1990). Each "SerSrv" allele displays the whole range of embryonic phenotypes but the proportions of individuals with a particular phenotype varies between alleles.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 80 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Ser
    (Meltzer et al., 2019, Hall et al., 2018, Kittelmann et al., 2018, Kumar, 2018, Salazar and Yamamoto, 2018, Yang and Deng, 2018, Yu et al., 2018, Bhattacharya et al., 2017, Court et al., 2017, Kojima, 2017, Langridge and Struhl, 2017, Praxenthaler et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Bivik et al., 2016, Blick et al., 2016, Córdoba et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Miller et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Moulton and Letsou, 2016, Nemetschke and Knust, 2016, Zacharioudaki et al., 2016, Aradhya et al., 2015, Arya et al., 2015, Gaertner et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Palmer et al., 2015, Rao et al., 2015, Reimels and Pfleger, 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Guarner et al., 2014, Gunage et al., 2014, Issman-Zecharya and Schuldiner, 2014, Kim and Choe, 2014, Parsons et al., 2014, Salazar-Jaramillo et al., 2014, Zacharioudaki and Bray, 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Christiansen et al., 2013, Djiane et al., 2013, Fleming et al., 2013, Kanda et al., 2013, Müller et al., 2013, Pérez-Gómez et al., 2013, Sachan et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Xin et al., 2013, Yang et al., 2013, Yousefian et al., 2013, Zhan et al., 2013, Zoranovic et al., 2013, Baron, 2012, Capilla et al., 2012, Formaz-Preston et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Sagner et al., 2012, Swarup and Verheyen, 2012, Troost and Klein, 2012, Xie et al., 2012, Xie et al., 2012, Xu and Gridley, 2012, Yamamoto et al., 2012, Zacharioudaki et al., 2012, Benhra et al., 2011, Cherbas et al., 2011, Crozatier and Vincent, 2011, Daskalaki et al., 2011, Grice and Liu, 2011, Grigorian et al., 2011, Leonardi et al., 2011, Mukherjee et al., 2011, Nicholson et al., 2011, Okegbe and DiNardo, 2011, Park et al., 2011, Poulton et al., 2011, Quijano et al., 2011, Richter et al., 2011, Tsubota et al., 2011, Vallejo et al., 2011, Barad et al., 2010, Becam et al., 2010, Fiuza et al., 2010, Flaherty et al., 2010, Hamel et al., 2010, Herz et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Kitadate and Kobayashi, 2010, Monastirioti et al., 2010, Richardson and Pichaud, 2010, Saj et al., 2010, Swaminathan and Pile, 2010, Swaminathan et al., 2010, Vachias et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Babaoglan et al., 2009, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Flaherty et al., 2009, Gutierrez-Aviño et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Martinez et al., 2009, Ozdowski et al., 2009, Sanders et al., 2009, Schaaf et al., 2009, Wang and Huang, 2009, Ayukawa et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, Miller and Herman, 2008, Rafel and Milán, 2008, Singh et al., 2008, Vaccari et al., 2008, Beltran et al., 2007, Buceta et al., 2007, Ciechanska et al., 2007, Griffiths et al., 2007, Krzemień et al., 2007, Lee and Lundell, 2007, Minakhina et al., 2007, Park et al., 2007, Sasaki et al., 2007, Sato and Tomlinson, 2007, Sato and Tomlinson, 2007, Singh and Wook-Choi, 2007, Thomas and van Meyel, 2007, Xing et al., 2007, Childress et al., 2006, Childress et al., 2006, Cho et al., 2006, Fuwa et al., 2006, Gallet et al., 2006, Gonzalez et al., 2006, Herranz and Milan, 2006, Herranz et al., 2006, Herranz et al., 2006, Jaekel and Klein, 2006, Langdon et al., 2006, Mao et al., 2006, Mukherjee et al., 2006, Shi et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Ward et al., 2006, Althauser et al., 2005, Baonza and Freeman, 2005, Galindo et al., 2005, Macdonald and Long, 2005, Pérez et al., 2005, Brodu et al., 2004, Trang et al., 2004, Wang and Struhl, 2004, Lei et al., 2003, Michellod et al., 2003, Rauskolb and Irvine, 1999)
    mel(3)8
    std
    Name Synonyms
    Ripped wing
    Serrate
    (Salazar and Yamamoto, 2018, Yu et al., 2018, Varshney and Stanley, 2017, Zhu et al., 2017, Córdoba et al., 2016, Nemetschke and Knust, 2016, Zacharioudaki et al., 2016, Aradhya et al., 2015, Bennett et al., 2015, Palmer and Deng, 2015, Palmer et al., 2015, Reimels and Pfleger, 2015, Schweisguth, 2015, Ferguson and Martinez-Agosto, 2014, Gunage et al., 2014, Parsons et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Zacharioudaki and Bray, 2014, Bejsovec, 2013, Christiansen et al., 2013, Kanda et al., 2013, Koch et al., 2013, Marianes and Spradling, 2013, Morin-Poulard et al., 2013, Perdigoto and Bardin, 2013, Pérez-Gómez et al., 2013, Schaaf et al., 2013, Whiteman et al., 2013, Xin et al., 2013, Yang et al., 2013, Zhan et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Zoranovic et al., 2013, Formaz-Preston et al., 2012, Sagner et al., 2012, Troost and Klein, 2012, Whitworth et al., 2012, Xu and Gridley, 2012, Yamamoto et al., 2012, Benhra et al., 2011, Cherbas et al., 2011, Crozatier and Vincent, 2011, Dahmann et al., 2011, Dalton et al., 2011, Grigorian et al., 2011, Nicholson et al., 2011, Okegbe and DiNardo, 2011, Poulton et al., 2011, Weinmaster and Fischer, 2011, Becam et al., 2010, Fiuza et al., 2010, Hamel et al., 2010, Herz et al., 2010, Jung et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Kitadate and Kobayashi, 2010, Levine et al., 2010, Saj et al., 2010, Vachias et al., 2010, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Fontana and Posakony, 2009, Gutierrez-Aviño et al., 2009, Martinez et al., 2009, Sanders et al., 2009, Schaaf et al., 2009, Ayukawa et al., 2008, Okegbe et al., 2008, Rafel and Milán, 2008, Singh et al., 2008, Vaccari et al., 2008, Xie, 2008, Buceta et al., 2007, Ciechanska et al., 2007, Grammont, 2007, Greenberg and Hatini, 2007, Minakhina et al., 2007, Ohlstein and Spradling, 2007, Ohlstein and Spradling, 2007, Sasaki et al., 2007, Sato and Tomlinson, 2007, Sato and Tomlinson, 2007, Thomas and van Meyel, 2007, Vachias et al., 2007, Xing et al., 2007, Axelson, 2006, Bernard et al., 2006, Fuwa et al., 2006, Glittenberg et al., 2006, Herranz and Milan, 2006, Langdon et al., 2006, Parks et al., 2006, Polo and Di, 2006, Shi et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Ward et al., 2006, Althauser et al., 2005, Baonza and Freeman, 2005, Radtke et al., 2005, Banyai and Patthy, 2004, Li and Baker, 2004, Weinmaster, 1997)
    serratoid
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0003111
    • FBgn0003355
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (650)