Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Syt1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Synaptotagmin 1
Annotation Symbol
CG3139
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004242
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) encodes a synaptic vesicle calcium binding protein that functions as the fast calcium sensor for neurotransmitter release at synapses. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
Syt, synaptotagmin, synaptotagmin I, Syt I, SytI
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:2,772,327..2,799,979 [-]
Recombination map
2-7
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the synaptotagmin family. (P21521)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SYNAPTOTAGMINS & SYNAPTOTAGMIN-LIKE PROTEINS -
Synaptotagmins are a family of membrane-trafficking proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and tandem cytoplasmic C2 domains which mediate specific interactions. Some of the family can interact with lipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner, leading to Ca2+-regulated release of neurotransmitters and hormones in the nervous and endocrine system. (Adapted from PMID:24065953 and FBrf0210023).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
May have a regulatory role in the membrane interactions during trafficking of synaptic vesicles at the active zone of the synapse. It binds acidic phospholipids with a specificity that requires the presence of both an acidic head group and a diacyl backbone.
(UniProt, P21521)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
calcium sensor in synaptic vesicle fusion - functions during exocytosis - functions as the fast calcium sensor for neurotransmitter release at synapses
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Syt1 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Syt1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Gene model reviewed during 6.19
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0077726
3993
474
FBtr0077727
3987
472
FBtr0077728
5110
472
FBtr0332218
5196
472
FBtr0332219
4548
170
FBtr0332220
4593
331
FBtr0343993
3990
473
FBtr0345331
5872
472
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.5, 4.0 (northern blot)
7.0, 4.5, 2.18 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077410
53.3
474
5.64
FBpp0077411
53.0
472
5.64
FBpp0077412
53.0
472
5.64
FBpp0304523
53.0
472
5.63
FBpp0304524
18.6
170
6.81
FBpp0304525
37.0
331
4.78
FBpp0310442
53.1
473
5.82
FBpp0311487
53.0
472
5.64
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

472 aa isoforms: Syt1-PB, Syt1-PC, Syt1-PI
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer or homotrimer (Potential). Identified in a complex with Syn and nwk (PubMed:29568072). Interacts with StnA and StnB via its second C2 domain. This interaction may mediate its retrieval from the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating the internalization of multiple synaptic vesicles from the plasma membrane.
(UniProt, P21521)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Syt1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (35 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000797569
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000797569
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001283
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000797569
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000797569
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001284
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000740739
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000740739
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001284
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000001284
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000740739
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 12-20 hr AEL

in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states >8-12 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Syt1 transcripts are first detected in 12-15hr embryos on northern blots and are detected at all subsequent stages tested. The are enriched in adult head relative to adult body.
Syt1 transcripts are first detected in embryos at stage 13 and are detected throughout the CNS and PNS. In adults, transcripts are detected in the cell bodies of the CNS in both the brain and in the thoracic ganglia.
The 4.5 kb syt transcript first appears between 8 and 12 hours of embryogenesis, and is expressed throughout development.
The 7.0 kb syt transcript is first detected at 12 to 20 hours of embryogenesis, and is expressed throughout development.
Syt1 transcript is detected only in neuronal cells. All peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons, and most (if not all) central nervous system (CNS) neurons express Syt1 transcript. The first Syt1 transcripts in the CNS are detected in late stage 13 embryos, in the ventral nerve cord in a few cells per segment. This expression increases and intensifies by stage 14. In stage 15 embryos, Syt1 transcript is detected in the supraoesophageal and suboesophageal ganglia, as well as in a subset of PNS neurons. At stage 17, Syt1 transcript is abundant in both the CNS and PNS.
On Northern blots, two transcripts of 4.5 and 7.0 kb are observed in adult head extracts with a Syt1 probe. No transcript is seen in 0-4 hour embryos and in third instar larvae.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
In the adult prothorax and neck, Syt1 immunoreactivity is observed in the type I boutons of motor neurons innervating the ventral cervical muscles, prothoracic sternal anterior rotator muscle 31, and prothoracic sternal adductor muscle 33, and in the type II boutons of motorneurons innervating ventral cervical muscle 27 and prothoracic sternal anterior rotator muscle 31. Type II boutons on muscle 31 that are along the cuticle lack Syt1 immunoreactivity.
No protein is detected in the Syt1D27 mutant with a polyclonal antiserum against Syt1 protein.
Syt1 protein is detected in the neuropil of the adult brain. It is observed in the synapse-rich regions in the lamina, the medulla, and the lobula. Staining is also observed in the neuropil in embryonic sections. In larvae, staining is observed at the neuromuscular junctions where it is tightly confined to the nerve terminals.
Immunocytochemical staining of whole mount embryos shows that Syt1 protein is rapidly transported to synapses and localizes to synaptic contact sites. In stage 14 embryos, the cell bodies of central nervous system neurons are transiently labeled. At stage 15, Syt1 protein is in the dorsal portion of the ventral nerve cord and in the brain. At stage 16, the longitudinal tracts of the central nervous system, motor neurons, and parts of the peripheral nervous system are stained. At stage 17, staining localizes to the longitudinal tracts of the central nervous system and to synapses in the body wall musculature. During larval development, Syt1 protein continues to be detected in neuromuscular junctions. Synaptic terminals in both type I and type II junctions stain. In the adult, Syt1 is detected in synapses of the adult head neuropil including those in the antennal lobes and the visual lamina.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Syt1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 34 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 60 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Syt1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Syt1
Deletions and Duplications ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
photoreceptor cell & synapse
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
 
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (19)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909FU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505LS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05JJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X05FR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0XMQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer or homotrimer (Potential). Identified in a complex with Syn and nwk (PubMed:29568072). Interacts with StnA and StnB via its second C2 domain. This interaction may mediate its retrieval from the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating the internalization of multiple synaptic vesicles from the plasma membrane.
(UniProt, P21521 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-7
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:2,772,327..2,799,979 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
23A6-23B1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP832 and P{PZ}oho23B03575
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
23B1-23B2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
23B-23B
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Determined by comparing Celera genomic sequence with sequence from BDGP BAC and P1 clones.
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (39)
Genomic Clones (12)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (107)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: Syt1 syt
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: syt l(2)k05909
    Additional comments
    FlyBase Curator comment: 'syt' has been renamed 'Syt1' to be in accordance with the FlyBase nomenclature rules, and to maintain consistency and clarity in the nomenclature of the Synaptotagmin gene family.
    Other Comments
    Ca[2+] binding by the C[[2]]B domain of Syt1 is required at intact synapses.
    Mutation of a poly-lysine motif in Syt1 alters vesicle size but not endocytic rate, whereas mutation of calcium-coordinating aspartate residues alters endocytic rate but not vesicle size.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    syt is necessary for the endocytosis of synaptic vesicles that have undergone exocytosis using a functional syt protein.
    The same H3 residues of the syt gene product that mediate Ca2+ channel inhibition also govern SNARE complexes through increased complex stability/assembly.
    syt can facilitate SNARE complex formation in vitro.
    A mutation that deletes the C2B domain of syt disrupts clathrin AP-2 binding and endocytosis. In contrast, a mutation that blocks Ca2+-triggered conformational changes in C2B and diminishes Ca2+-triggered syt protein oligomerisation results in a postdocking defect in neurotransmitter release and a decrease in SNARE assembly.
    Identified with: GH17619 <up>FlyBase curator comment: EST subsequently found to be chimeric</up>.
    The syt gene product is a negative regulator of synaptic vesicle fusion and may act as a calcium-sensor and/or component of the vesicle docking machinery.
    Neuromuscular transmission persists in the absence of syt.
    syt is a negative regulator of vesicle fusion and acts to increase the efficiency of excitation-secretion coupling during synaptic transmission.
    Reduced levels of syt result in a substantial alteration in synaptic function in the eye and at larval neuromuscular junctions. Decreased neurotransmitter release causes smaller evoked synaptic potentials. The frequency, but not the size, of spontaneous quantal events is simultaneously increased. There is no detectable morphological change in the arborisation of the synapse. The increased frequency of spontaneous events is sufficient to deplete significantly the vesicle supply and thereby account for reduced transmission.
    syt is required for hatching and locomotion of first instar larvae.
    The defects caused by various mutant combinations of syt alleles that produce adult progeny vary from severe uncoordination and death to subtle behavioural defects affecting flight and fertility.
    Genetic and electrophysiological evidence demonstrates that syt forms a multimeric complex that can function as a clamp in vivo. Upon nerve stimulation and calcium influx all synaptotagmin mutants dramatically decrease the ability of calcium to promote release, suggesting that syt plays a key role in activation of synaptic vesicle fusion.
    Synaptotagmin is one of the major integral proteins of synaptic vesicles, postulated to dock vesicles to their release sites, act as the Ca2+ sensor for release and be a fusion protein during exocytosis. Mutant alleles isolated demonstrate that synaptotagmin is not required for synaptic transmission.
    Evolutionary conservation of both structure and localisation suggests that n-syb, Rab3 and syt have an important function in the life cycle of the synaptic vesicle.
    syt plays a key role in Ca2+ activation of neurotransmitter release: mutant analysis indicates the existence of separate pathways for evoked and spontaneous neurotransmitter release.
    Identification: Isolated from a cDNA library using rat synaptotagmin probes under low stringency conditions.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 82 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (47)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Syt
    (Ojelade et al., 2019, Machamer et al., 2018, Valadas et al., 2018, Dey et al., 2017, Kreko-Pierce and Eaton, 2017, Ugur et al., 2017, Andrews et al., 2014, Aso et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2014, Chin et al., 2014, Kohl et al., 2014, Kohl et al., 2014, Vasin et al., 2014, Xing et al., 2014, Diaper et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Maldonado et al., 2013, Mann et al., 2013, Nahm et al., 2013, Rohrbough et al., 2013, Shaw and Chang, 2013, Aso et al., 2012, Holbrook et al., 2012, Lloyd et al., 2012, Reis et al., 2012, Hartl et al., 2011, Liu et al., 2011, Morikawa et al., 2011, Müller et al., 2011, Séjourné et al., 2011, Shih and Chiang, 2011, Ting et al., 2011, Ting et al., 2011, Banovic et al., 2010, Cachero et al., 2010, Chou et al., 2010, Gong et al., 2010, Li et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Nahm et al., 2010, Nicolaï et al., 2010, Rohrbough and Broadie, 2010, Tsurudome et al., 2010, Williamson et al., 2010, Williamson et al., 2010, Busch et al., 2009, Darya et al., 2009, Gazi et al., 2009, Hofmeyer and Treisman, 2009, Johnson et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Albertson et al., 2008, Koch et al., 2008, Miller et al., 2008, Morante and Desplan, 2008, Romero et al., 2008, Tsai et al., 2008, Vömel and Wegener, 2008, Bao et al., 2007, Besse et al., 2007, Juhász et al., 2007, Rohrbough et al., 2007, Roy et al., 2007, Stowers and Isacoff, 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Ang et al., 2006, Chu et al., 2006, Collins et al., 2006, Iyengar et al., 2006, Majumdar et al., 2006, Pielage et al., 2006, Bao et al., 2005, Guerrero et al., 2005, Orso et al., 2005, Coyle et al., 2004, Koh et al., 2004, Verstreken et al., 2002, Stewart et al., 2000, Wan et al., 2000, Nie et al., 1999, Petersen et al., 1997)
    l(2)23AB1
    Name Synonyms
    Synaptoptagmin 1
    Synaptotagmin-I
    Synaptotagmin1
    SynaptotagminI
    synaptotagmin
    (Tsai et al., 2019, Fan et al., 2018, Harris and Littleton, 2015, Chen et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Mauss et al., 2014, Meier et al., 2014, Diaper et al., 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Beck et al., 2012, Hong et al., 2012, Lai et al., 2012, Reis et al., 2012, Gatto and Broadie, 2011, Hasegawa et al., 2011, Liu et al., 2011, Morikawa et al., 2011, Sun et al., 2011, Cachero et al., 2010, Choi et al., 2010, Chou et al., 2010, Lorenzo et al., 2010, Rideout et al., 2010, Seabrooke et al., 2010, Chang and Min, 2009, Darya et al., 2009, Gatto and Broadie, 2009, Iijima-Ando et al., 2009, Katsuki et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Mao and Davis, 2009, Shen and Ganetzky, 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Albertson et al., 2008, Ben Rokia-Mille et al., 2008, Franciscovich et al., 2008, Kimura et al., 2008, Koch et al., 2008, Ratnaparkhi et al., 2008, Haines and Stewart, 2007, Hattori et al., 2007, Jefferis et al., 2007, Jones et al., 2007, Mehnert et al., 2007, Roy et al., 2007, Rusu et al., 2007, Sweeney et al., 2007, Tinette et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Zeng et al., 2007, Acharya et al., 2006, Baqri et al., 2006, Berdnik et al., 2006, Chu et al., 2006, Dickman et al., 2006, Glater et al., 2006, Hebbar et al., 2006, Huang et al., 2006, Loewen et al., 2006, Pielage et al., 2006, Dulcis and Levine, 2005, Narayanan et al., 2005, Orso et al., 2005, Cherry and Perrimon, 2004, Godenschwege et al., 2004, Hebbar and Fernandes, 2004, Wang et al., 2004, Lee et al., 2001, Mohtashami et al., 2001, Sanyal and Krishnan, 2001, Cantera et al., 1999, Gonzalez-Gaitan and Jackle, 1997, Estes et al., 1996, Hurd and Saxton, 1996, DiAntonio et al., 1993, DiAntonio et al., 1993, Littleton et al., 1993)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0005767
    • FBgn0022151
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (549)