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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\18w
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
18 wheeler
Annotation Symbol
CG8896
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004364
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
18 wheeler (18w) encodes a member of the Toll-like receptor family. It contributes to multiple processes including ovarian follicle cell migration, antibacterial humoral response and ventral cord development. A role in convergent extension during early embryogenesis is suggested by the genetic interaction of 18w with Toll-6 and Tollo. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
Toll-2, Toll2, tlr
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:20,111,511..20,116,932 [+]
Recombination map
2-90
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
TOLL RECEPTORS -
The Toll/Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members are type-I single-pass transmembrane receptors with an intracellular Toll IL-1R homology (TIR) domain and extracellular Leucine-rich repeats. The archetypal family member, Tl, was first characterized for its role in embryonic dorsal/ventral patterning. In larval and adult stages, Tl is involved with innate immune response. Tl is activated by binding an endogenous spatzle ligand and activation of NF-κB is the target of canonical Toll/Toll-like receptor signaling. Non-canonical signaling pathways are less well characterized. (Adapted from FBrf0130108, FBrf0212564 and FBrf0239503).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transmembrane - leucine-rich repeat motif (LRR) - a critical component of the humoral immune response
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\18w or the JBrowse view of Dmel\18w for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086309
5422
1385
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085620
154.8
1385
6.43
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1389 (aa); 155 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\18w using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:Tl; FB:FBgn0262473
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000157
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:Tl; FB:FBgn0262473
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
18w transcript is expressed in the proximal region of the wing disc, and the anterior compartment in leg discs; expression is absent from the wing pouch.
18w is expressed before and throughout salivary gland invagination during embryonic stages 11 and 12. At stage 13, it is no longer expressed in the salivary glands but is detected in salivary gland ducts.
18w transcripts are detected at all stages of development.
18w is expressed in all developmental stages tested. Expression is first observed at the syncytial blastoderm stage in the presumptive hindgut, head regions, and parasegment 2. Shortly after, stripes of expression are seen first in the even numbered parasegments and then in the odd numbered parasegments. By the extended germ band stage, 18w is expressed in 15 transverse stripes with patches of expression corresponding to the 4 head segments and the hindgut as well. 18w expression in the trunk region was shown to overlap the wg and en stripes and spans the parasegmental boundary. At full germ band extension, the stripes begin to fade and expression is observed in segmentally repeated lateral clusters corresponding to the tracheal pits and the segmental grooves. Expression is accentuated in the cells surrounding the anterior and posterior spiracles. Transient expression in the CNS is also seen. Later, 18w expression is observed in the wing and haltere disc primordia, the dorsal vessel, the antennal-maxillary sense organs, the clypeolabrum, the anterior and posterior spiracles, and in the anal plate.
18w transcripts are expressed in all stages of development tested. They are expressed in a complex pattern during embryogenesis. Expression is first observed just prior to cellular blastoderm formation in three stripes in the anterior portion of the embryo and a broader posterior domain. Subsequently, stripes are seen in the central region of the embryo. At late cellular blastoderm, secondary stripes appear leading to the transient expression of 18 stripes during early gastrulation and 20 stripes at stage 10. 18w expression overlaps the wg and en stripes and spans the parasegmental boundary. At maximum germ band extension, expression is observed along the ventral midline in small clusters of cells posterior to each stripe. Staining is also observed in salivary gland placodes, in tracheal pits, and in five areas in the presumptive head region. During germ band retraction, transcripts are less abundant and more restricted. They are observed in the developing tracheal system, the salivary gland anlagen, the anlagen for the anal plate, the posterior spiracles, the clypeolabrum, and in cells that participate in the formation of the dorsal vessel. In stage 15 and 16, 18w expression is also observed in regions of the head, pharynx, stomach, and hindgut.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}Q26b
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}A1-2-54
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}18w00053
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\18w in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of 18w
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of 18w
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (11)
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (11)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (25)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919018D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500VD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00IS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00OH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0137 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (32)
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-90
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:20,111,511..20,116,932 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    56F8-56F8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k08002k08002 and P{lacW}Ate1k10809
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    56F6-56F9
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    56F8-56F12
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (13)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (18)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: 18w CG8896
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    The 18w gene may have been derived from the atk gene by retroposition.
    The 18w and Toll-7 genes share at least 50% identity.
    Other Comments
    18w, Tollo, and Toll-6 act in combination to regulate axis elongation.
    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.
    Loss of function 18w mutant follicle cells exhibit delayed migration. The eggs laid by feamles with ovarian clones show defects in egg shape and dorsal appendage morphology.
    Mutant allele fails to complement a QTL affecting male mating behaviour.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    18w is a critical component of the humoral immune response.
    18w protein is 1389 amino aids in length.
    The 18w protein functions as a receptor mediating intercellular communication during various developmental events, including pattern formation, imaginal cell determination and the larval immune response. Expression of 18w protein in non-adhesive Schneider 2 cells promotes heterophilic cell aggregation as seen in similar experiments with Tl and other receptor-ligand molecules.
    18w encodes a protein that contains multiple leucine rich motifs (LRR) in its presumed extracellular domain. 18w may be involved in cell-to-cell interactions.
    Molecular and phenotypic analysis suggests 18w participates in the developmental program specified by segmentation and homeotic genes as a cell adhesion or receptor molecule that facilitates cell movements.
    18w open reading frame encodes a protein with significant similarities to both Tl and chp.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Named "18 wheeler" on basis of 18 stripes of expression during early gastrulation.
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 46 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
    Reported As
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (169)