Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rhi
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
rhino
Annotation Symbol
CG10683
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004400
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
rhino (rhi) encodes a germline-restricted heterochromatin protein 1 required for fertility. It silences germline transposable elements by promoting transcription of the small RNAs encoded in Piwi-RNA clusters. rhi (as well as its interacting partners del and cuff) shows ovary-biased expression, but it is also expressed and functional in the testis. [Date last reviewed: 2021-09-16] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

HP1D, HP1

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-83
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:17628491..17633516
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (10 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:Su(var)205; FB:FBgn0003607
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:Su(var)205; FB:FBgn0003607
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in heterochromatin
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in chromatin
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:Su(var)205; FB:FBgn0003607
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
rhino (rhi) encodes a germline-restricted heterochromatin protein 1 required for fertility. It silences germline transposable elements by promoting transcription of the small RNAs encoded in Piwi-RNA clusters. rhi (as well as its interacting partners del and cuff) shows ovary-biased expression, but it is also expressed and functional in the testis. [Date last reviewed: 2021-09-16]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 FAMILY -
Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1, Su(var)205) was first discovered in Drosophila as a dominant suppressor of position-effect variegation and a major component of heterochromatin. Members of the HP1 family are characterised by the presence of an N-terminal chromodomain and a C-terminal chromoshadow domain. In addition to heterochromatin packaging and silencing, HP1 proteins have diverse roles in the nucleus, including the regulation of euchromatic genes. (Adapted from FBrf0193304).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

HP1 homolog - required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of Piwi-interacting RNAs

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\rhi for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086897
1570
418
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086056
46.3
418
9.90
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\rhi using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in heterochromatin
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\rhi in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of rhi
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of rhi
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 3 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
No
2  
5 of 15
Yes
No
3  
5 of 15
Yes
No
4  
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
No
1  
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (12)
5 of 13
Yes
No
5 of 13
Yes
No
5 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (9)
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
5 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (14)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
3 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BGY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915075M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (9)
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-83
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    54D2-54D2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(2)1050510505 and P{lacW}l(2)k07509k07509&P{EP}CG10934EP538
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    54C-54D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    54C1-54C12
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    54C-54C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    The insertions in rhi1 and rhi02086 both map to the 54C--54D border.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (33)
    cDNA Clones (21)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: rhi CG10683

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of rhi CG10683 was sequence comparison ( date:010922 ).

    Other Comments

    rhi is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual-strand clusters.

    rhi is required for proper chromosome conformation in the nurse cells during oogenesis and for the correct patterning of the eggshell and embryo.

    rhi is required for the formation of the two dorsolateral respiratory appendages of the eggshell from follicle cells.

    Mutant rhi embryos display altered dorsal/ventral polarity and altered dorsal appendage structure.

    rhi mutants produce eggs with fused or thin filaments.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    The gene is named "rhino" after the mutant phenotype; many eggs laid by mutant females have a single dorsal appendage.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 80 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    rno
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0034254
    Datasets (1)
    Study focus (1)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    • bait_protein
    Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
    References (154)