General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Gad1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1
Annotation Symbol
CG14994
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004516
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Glutamate decarboxylase (4.1.1.15)
Gene Snapshot
Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) is an essential, nervous system-specific glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is the synthetic enzyme for the major inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is required for a multitude of physiological functions and adult behaviors dependent on GABA, including sleep, memory, circadian rhythms and egg hatching. [Date last reviewed: 2017-02-09]
Also Known As
Gad, DGad1, l(3)64An
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:4,074,077..4,088,744 [-]
Recombination map
3-10
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the group II decarboxylase family. (P20228)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2) (4.1.1.15)
Predictions / Assertions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2) (4.1.1.15)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
CARBOXY-LYASES -
Carboxy-lyases are involved in the the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). (Adapted from FBrf0238856).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
(UniProt, P20228)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Gad: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (J.C. Hall)
The structural gene for glutamic acid decarboxylase. Gad probes detect putative GAD-encoding 3.1-kb mRNA, from 4-8 h of embryogenesis to adulthood; a 2.6-kb RNA was also found, in embryos and pupae only; in situ hybridization detects the RNA(s) in widely, but not uniformly, distributed CNS cortical regions (of adult heads and larvae), with no detectable signals in non-neural tissues.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Gad1 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Gad1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073276
3050
510
FBtr0073275
3362
510
FBtr0073277
3151
510
FBtr0332980
3017
510
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073132
57.8
510
6.51
FBpp0073131
57.8
510
6.51
FBpp0073133
57.8
510
6.51
FBpp0305196
57.8
510
6.51
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

510 aa isoforms: Gad1-PA, Gad1-PB, Gad1-PC, Gad1-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer.
(UniProt, P20228)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Gad1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (11 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002129
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Gad1 protein is expressed in both the anterior and posterior rings of the ellipsoid body.
Most, but not quite all, local interneurons of the adult antennal lobe express Gad1.
Gad1 protein is expressed in a few cells adjacent to the insulin producing cells (IPC) of the pars intercerebralis.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Gad1-GAL4.3.098}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: expression is absent

Reporter: P{Gad1-GAL4.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Gad1-GAL4.U}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Gad1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 23 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 18 )
Summary of Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
 
4 of 15
No
No
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905KH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150369 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03WZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X058C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07ZU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    RNA-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer.
    (UniProt, P20228 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-10
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:4,074,077..4,088,744 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    64A5-64A5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)rG166rG166 and P{PZ}sinu06524
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    64A5-64A5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    64A3-64A5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (23)
    Genomic Clones (23)
    cDNA Clones (97)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: Gad1 l(3)64An
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    All detectable embryonic GABA is produced by the Gad1 enzyme. Onset of detectable GABA production in the embryonic CNS occurs late in neurogenesis and is tightly regulated by a suppression of Gad1 downstream of Gad1 translation. GABA expression in primary cell cultures is influenced by K+. Suppression of GABA in chronically high K+ is independent of synaptic release. The negative regulation of Gad1 can be overridden by drugs known to elevate intracellular free Ca2+.
    Gad1 has a role in glutamatergic synaptogenesis.
    Discussed during genetic analysis of the Ras64B-Rop region.
    The genomic organisation of the Gad1 locus has been determined.
    Gad1 has been cloned and characterised.
    Cloned by cross-hybridization with feline GAD-encoding gene. The structural gene for glutamic acid decarboxylase. Cloned by cross-hybridization with feline GAD-encoding gene. Gad probes detect putative GAD-encoding 3.1-kb mRNA, from 4-8 h of embryogenesis to adulthood; a 2.6-kb RNA was also found, in embryos and pupae only; in situ hybridization detects the RNA(s) in widely, but not uniformly, distributed CNS cortical regions (of adult heads and larvae), with no detectable signals in non-neural tissues.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 56 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Glb
    Name Synonyms
    GABA synthetase
    Glutamic acid decarboxylase
    Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1
    Glutamic acid decarboxylase-1
    glutamatic acid decarboxylase
    glutamic acid decarboxylase 1
    glutamic acid decarboxylase-1
    vesicular glutamic acid decarboxylase
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0001088
    • FBgn0001110
    • FBgn0016015
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (140)