General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pros
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
prospero
Annotation Symbol
CG17228
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004595
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Prospero (Pros) promotes the expression of neural differentiation genes and represses neuroblast stem cell identity genes and cell cycle proliferation genes; it is also important for astrocyte development. Pros is asymmetrically localized to the basal cortex during neuroblast asymmetric cell division, resulting in its partioning into GMC daughter cells, where it translocates into the nucleus. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
Voila, DROPROSA, pro, Prospero, l(3)10419
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:11,328,480..11,407,627 [+]
Recombination map
3-51
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the Prospero homeodomain family. (P29617)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
PROSPERO HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Prospero homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. These proteins have a characteristic DNA-binding PROS domain C-terminal to an atypical homeodomain. (Adapted from FBrf0232555 and PMID:17963489).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Homeodomain protein that controls neuronal identity (PubMed:1842358). As a transcriptional factor, regulates the expression of ftz, eve and en in a subset of neuroblast progeny and modulates the transcriptional activity of other homeodomain proteins such as Dfd (PubMed:12429095, PubMed:15837198, PubMed:9380747). Required for proper neuronal differentiation, axonal outgrowth and pathfinding of most or all neurons and their precursors in central and peripheral nervous systems (PubMed:20152183, PubMed:27510969, PubMed:1720353, PubMed:1842358, PubMed:1540176, PubMed:11051550, PubMed:18342578, PubMed:23056424, PubMed:16564014). Regulates asymmetric stem cell self-renewal together with brat (PubMed:16564014).
(UniProt, P29617)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\pros or the JBrowse view of Dmel\pros for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.41
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0304603
22169
1674
FBtr0304604
23486
1835
FBtr0304605
5613
1403
FBtr0304606
7890
1535
FBtr0304607
5526
1374
FBtr0304608
22289
1703
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.5 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0293145
181.5
1674
6.54
FBpp0293146
198.4
1835
6.64
FBpp0293147
153.6
1403
6.51
FBpp0293148
167.0
1535
6.59
FBpp0293149
150.1
1374
6.46
FBpp0293150
185.0
1703
6.58
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Domain
The Prospero-type homeodomain and the adjacent Prospero domain act as a single structural unit, the Homeo-Prospero domain.
(UniProt, P29617)
Crossreferences
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pros using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (58 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000258074
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (48 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (39 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P51023
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q26263
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P51023
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P51023
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000258074
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000258074
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000258074
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

interface glial cell

Comment: reference states 12-15 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
pros transcripts are uniformly distributed in blastoderm embryos but by the gastrula stage, are expressed in seven stripes. Later they are observed in all but two of the neuroblasts in each hemisegment and in midline precursor cells. In the PNS, they are first observed in the SMC precursors but are later restricted to a single nonneuronal support cell in each sense organ. In the CNS, they are observed in glioblasts and in about six longitudinal glia per hemisegment at stage 12.
In stages 6 and 7, pros expression is confined to the neurectoderm of the abdominal segments as well as the procephalic neurectoderm of the head region. As neuroblasts delaminate, expression is restricted to them. Following division of the neuroblasts, the progeny GMCs also show strong pros expression. Midline cells express pros starting in stage 9. CNS expression becomes progressively restricted to cells in the lateral and dorsal portions of the ventral cord. In the PNS, pros expression is detected in sensory organ precursors at stage 10. Later, pros expression was evident in the second order precursors and then became restricted to a subset of their progeny (the scolopidia of chordotonal organs and the thecogen of external sensory organs). Outside of the nervous system, pros expression is detected in cells lining the gut and in the garland cells that form a ring around the CNS.
pros transcripts are expressed in neuroblasts and in ganglion mother cells in the CNS.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
plasma membrane | apical & adjacent to cytoplasm | apical plasma membrane | basal & adjacent to
plasma membrane | apical & proximal to plasma membrane | basal & proximal to
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal margin photoreceptor cell R7

Comment: at 48 hr APF; not in dorsal margin photoreceptor cell R8

Additional Descriptive Data
pros protein is expressed in the 6 anterior longitudinal (interface) glial cells, where it is co-expressed with Scer\GAL4CG31235.PS. The majority of cells also co-express Scer\GAL4Eaat1.PR.
Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.
pros protein first starts to accumulate in the apical cortex in neuroblasts at interphase. During mitosis, it localizes to the basal cortex of the neuroblast. During anaphase, it is asymmetrically localized to the cortex of the budding ganglion mother cell (GMC). Immediately after cytokinesis, pros protein is cortically localized around the entire GMC and is excluded from the neuroblast. It is subsequently translocated into the GMC nucleus. In MP2 and in the GMCs, one division occurs to produce a pair of neurons. In these cells, pros protein does not become cortically localized but is found throughout the cell. After MP2 and GMC cytokinesis, pros protein is found transiently in the nuclei of the sibling neurons. pros protein is also asymmetrically localized to the cortex in mitotic sensillum precursor cells of the PNS and in midgut primordia.
pros protein is observed in 5% of small cells that occupy a basal position within the adult midgut epithelium.
pros protein is first detected in the cytoplasm during prophase. Shortly after, it translocates to the membrane where it colocalizes with numb protein through telophase. Both proteins segregate in to the same daughter cell after which pros protein is released from the membrane and is transported into the nucleus. pros protein localization is microtubule and actin independent.
During mitosis at prepupal stage P5(ii), pros is asymmetrically localized in a cortical crescent in only one of the dividing cells, and is either nuclear or cytoplasmically localized in the sister cell. At 36hrs APF, the presence of pros in the sheath (thecogen) cell is possibly due to inheritance from the precursor cell IIb lineage, whilst expression in the socket (tormogen) cell, which is derived from the non-pros expressing precursor cell IIa, is due to de novo synthesis. Expression of pros in the eo glial cell is transient and is rapidly lost as the cell moves away to associate with the fasciculating sensory neuron.
pros protein localizes to the apical side of neuroblasts at interphase. During prophase it forms a crescent on the basal side of the cell and remains there through the rest of mitosis. It partitions to the GMC when the cell divides.
During embryonic stages 8 and 9, pros protein is observed in the nucleus but is partly colocalized with miranda protein at the cortex of interphase ectodermal cells. It is localized at the basolateral cortex of epithelial cells during mitosis. It is equally partitioned to the two daughter epithelial cells.
In contrast to previous studies, pros protein is observed in neuroblasts where it is found in an apical or basal cortical crescent.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4-pros.MG}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}prosV1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZ.w+}pros139
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}pros10419
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pros in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 137 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of pros
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of mobile activating element
Name
Expression Data
miscellaneous insertions
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 40 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pros
Allele of pros
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pros
GAL4 construct
Deletions and Duplications ( 19 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
axon & photoreceptor cell R7 | somatic clone
chordotonal organ & axon | lateral
filopodium & muscle cell
head bristle & eo neuron
head bristle & tormogen cell
head bristle & trichogen cell
interommatidial bristle & eo neuron
interommatidial bristle & tormogen cell, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
interommatidial bristle & trichogen cell
interommatidial bristle & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
microchaeta & antennal segment 3, with Scer\GAL4sca-P309
scutum & external sensory organ
scutum & external sensory organ & tormogen cell, with Scer\GAL4sca-P309
scutum & external sensory organ & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4sca-P309
scutum & macrochaeta
scutum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
scutum & macrochaeta & eo neuron
scutum & macrochaeta & tormogen cell, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
scutum & macrochaeta & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
scutum & macrochaeta | somatic clone
scutum & microchaeta
scutum & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
scutum & microchaeta & eo neuron
scutum & microchaeta & tormogen cell
scutum & microchaeta & tormogen cell, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
scutum & microchaeta & trichogen cell
scutum & microchaeta & trichogen cell, with Scer\GAL4sca-109-68
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901OY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500YE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00RH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00Q2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0GHY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-51
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:11,328,480..11,407,627 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    86E1-86E4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP3340EP3340 and P{PZ}tho1&P{PZ}l(3)0462905275
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    86E1-86E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    86E1-86E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 86E1--3 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 86E1--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 86E1--6 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 86E2--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    86E1-86E6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 86E1--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 86E2--5 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 86E1--3 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 86E1--2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    86D-86D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    67F1-67F2
    86E2--3 86E2--4
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (17)
    Genomic Clones (50)
    cDNA Clones (154)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: pros l(3)rK137
      Source for merge of: pros Voila
      Source for merge of: pros BcDNA:HL08040
      Source for merge of: pros anon-WO0140519.15
      Additional comments
      "Voila" may correspond to "pros"; the P{GawB} element in "Voila1" is inserted 216bp upstream of the transcription start site of "pros".
      Source for merge of pros BcDNA:HL08040 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
      Source for merge of pros anon-WO0140519.15 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
      Other Comments
      pros and mir-279 are required to prevent the formation of a CO[[2]] olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) within Or59c and Or42a ORN-containing maxillary palp sensilla.
      pros is a downstream effector of brat.
      Maintenance of hb expression within the ganglion mother cells is mediated by pros.
      S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.
      A combination of cortical tethering and regulated nuclear export controls pros subcellular distribution and function in higher eukaryotes.
      pros is required for glial cell fate determination in the NB6-4T lineage embryo. In other lineages, glial cells appear independently of pros. mira and pros seem to be upstream of gcm in the cascade of cell fate decision in the NB6-4T lineage.
      pros protein is asymmetrically localized at the cell cortex of mitotic NB6-4T neuroblasts and segregated to the nucleus of the glial precursor cell. mira and insc are required for the correct cortical location of pros protein in NB6-4T.
      Mutant larvae do not show gustatory responses to NaCl and sucrose.
      pros is a critical regulator of the transition from mitotically active cells to terminal differentiated neurons during neurogenesis.
      pros mutants show severe delays in axon outgrowth, and the post-synaptic myopodia are initially present but fail to show clustering behavior.
      pros has a function in dendritic development.
      Eight EMS induced alleles have been identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.
      pros promotes IIb cell fate and inhibits IIa cell fate in the adult external sense organ lineage.
      Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.
      pros has a role in the determination of the fate of the PIIb cell in the development of the adult external sensory organs.
      Males with a mutation in the pros locus show strong bisexual behaviour.
      pros mRNA and the RNA-binding protein stau are asymmetrically localised in mitotic neuroblasts and are specifically partitioned into the GMC, as is pros protein. stau is required for localisation of pros RNA but not of pros protein. Loss of localisation of stau or of pros RNA alters GMC development, but only in embryos with reduced levels of pros protein, suggesting that pros RNA and pros protein act redundantly to specify GMC fate. GMCs do not transcribe the pros gene, showing that inheritance of pros RNA and/or pros proteins from the neuroblast is essential for GMC specification.
      Cortical pros protein is highly phosphorylated compared to nuclear pros protein in embryos.
      insc, pros and stau localisation in neuroblasts in vitro is studied. Extrinsic and intrinsic cues and microfilaments regulate the subcellular localisation of the pros, insc and stau proteins in neuroblasts.
      pros is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein with novel sequence preferences that can act as a transcription factor. pros protein can interact with homeodomain proteins to differentially modulate the DNA-binding properties. The DNA-binding and homeodomain protein interacting activities are localised to the highly conserved C-terminal region, the two regulatory capacities are independent. pros protein modulates the DNA binding activity of Dfd by pros-mediated conformational changes.
      mira protein interacts directly with the pros gene product, directs pros to the GMC daughter cell during asymmetric divisions, tethers pros protein to the basal cortex of mitotic neuroblasts, and releases pros from the cell cortex within the GMCs.
      insc and stau mediate asymmetric localization and segregation of pros RNA during neuroblast cell divisions. stau protein binds pros RNA in its 3'UTR.
      pros gene becomes transcriptionally activated at a low level in all sev-competent cells prior to sev signaling and this requires the activities of Ras85D and two ETS transcription factors, aop and pnt. Restriction of high level pros expression to the R7 cell appears as a subsequent event, which requires sev activation of the Ras85D kinase pathway. phyl interacts with another nuclear factor, sina, to form a complex and both factors are involved in upregulating transcription of pros in the eye.
      Orientation of the mitotic spindle and correct localisation of numb and pros in basal daughter cells requires insc.
      Four neuroblast molecular markers (svp, pros, en and ftz) have been used to demonstrate that some neuroblasts are homologous between insects (Drosophila and Schistocerca). They have similar position, time of formation and time of gene expression. Results suggest that evolution of the insect CNS has occurred in part through altering the neuroblast pattern and fate.
      pros is asymmetrically segregated on neuroblast division. pros synthesised in neuroblasts in retained in the cytoplasm and at mitosis is exclusively partitioned to ganglion mother cells. Differential segregation of pros is also found in the endoderm. The region responsible for this event shares a common motif with numb, which also shows unequal segregation.
      Genetic screens for dominant second site mutations that interact genetically with Abl have identified mutations in pros.
      pros translocates to the membrane at the beginning of cell division and colocalises with numb throughout mitosis, suggesting a common mechanism for asymmetric segregation. numb and pros localisation is coupled to mitosis and tightly correlated with the position of one of the two centrosomes but independent of microtubules and actin.
      Mutations in 12 complementation groups differentially affect lateral chordotonal axon growth, fasciculation or ventral orientation. Mutations in bac, wwy, sli, los, dode, abof and pros cause some lch axon bundles to grow dorsally along a trajectory 180o from normal.
      The pros transcription factor is asymmetrically localized to the cell cortex during neuroblast mitosis, providing a mechanism for rapidly establishing distinct sibling cell fates in the CNS and possibly other tissues.
      Within the hierarchy of genes expressed in GMC4-2a nub and pdm2 lie downstream of pros and ftz and upstream of eve.
      Mutation in pros affects neuronal connections, affecting pathway finding.
      pros is required for PNS development in the embryo.
      Mutations at pros were used to show that innervation plays no role in the patterning, morphogenesis, maintenance or physiological development of the somatic muscles of the embryo.
      pros mutants, that remove or delay innervation in the embryo, have been used to determine role of presynaptic motor neuron in the development of the receptive field of the postsynaptic muscle: the muscle autonomously defines correct synaptic site whereas the motor neuron directs the development of the muscle's receptive field by stimulating the synthesis and localization of transmitter receptors.
      Mutations in pros generate malformations of the longitudinal tracts.
      pros has been isolated and its expression pattern in the developing CNS determined.
      pros expression is required for the correct cell lineage of several neuroblasts including the neuroblast that produces the aCC and pCC neurons.
      Mutant has defects in neuroblast cell lineages, axon pathfinding in CNS and PNS.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      The locus is named "Voila" - a la voile et a la vapeur, French slang for a bisexual human.
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 72 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (43)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BcDNA:HL08040
      Pros
      (Carmena, 2018, Losada-Perez et al., 2017, Yang et al., 2017, Altenhein et al., 2016, Friedrich et al., 2016, Jiang et al., 2016, Kraft et al., 2016, Li and Jasper, 2016, Poon et al., 2016, Quan et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Viets et al., 2016, Yadav et al., 2016, Yasugi and Nishimura, 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Finley et al., 2015, Gogendeau et al., 2015, Jia et al., 2015, Kohlmaier et al., 2015, Lu and Li, 2015, Peláez et al., 2015, Amcheslavsky et al., 2014, Eroglu et al., 2014, Fidler et al., 2014, Kuang et al., 2014, Lai and Doe, 2014, Li et al., 2014, Baek et al., 2013, Bergstralh et al., 2013, Carney et al., 2013, Chai et al., 2013, Culurgioni and Mapelli, 2013, He and Noll, 2013, Johnston, 2013, Lee et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Lu and Johnston, 2013, Ly et al., 2013, Ma et al., 2013, Noatynska et al., 2013, Quan et al., 2013, Rister et al., 2013, Shwartz et al., 2013, Takashima et al., 2013, Zeng et al., 2013, Zhou and Luo, 2013, de Navascués et al., 2012, Giagtzoglou et al., 2012, Homem and Knoblich, 2012, Kelsom and Lu, 2012, Moraru et al., 2012, Plavicki et al., 2012, Poernbacher et al., 2012, Song and Lu, 2012, Weng and Cohen, 2012, Xiao et al., 2012, Yoshiura et al., 2012, Belacortu et al., 2011, Biteau and Jasper, 2011, Duan et al., 2011, Endo et al., 2011, Hasegawa et al., 2011, Kuzina et al., 2011, Lee et al., 2011, Micchelli et al., 2011, Orihara-Ono et al., 2011, Ouyang et al., 2011, Perdigoto et al., 2011, Quijano et al., 2011, Rebeiz et al., 2011, Royo et al., 2011, Viktorin et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Weng and Lee, 2011, Bardin et al., 2010, Beebe et al., 2010, Fan et al., 2010, Karlsson et al., 2010, Kechris et al., 2010, Kitajima et al., 2010, Pessa et al., 2010, Reddy et al., 2010, Siegrist et al., 2010, Stacey et al., 2010, von Hilchen et al., 2010, Witt et al., 2010, Almudi et al., 2009, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Cabernard and Doe, 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Miller et al., 2009, Miller et al., 2009, Newman and Prehoda, 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Beckervordersandforth et al., 2008, Charlton-Perkins et al., 2008, Deb et al., 2008, del Alamo and Mlodzik, 2008, Lin et al., 2008, Mao et al., 2008, McNeill et al., 2008, Morey et al., 2008, Speicher et al., 2008, Ambrus et al., 2007, Bello et al., 2007, Egger et al., 2007, Grillenzoni et al., 2007, Lichtneckert et al., 2007, Matsuno et al., 2007, Slack et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Gallagher and Knoblich, 2006, Hutterer et al., 2006, Liebl et al., 2006, Slack et al., 2006, Vrailas and Moses, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wheeler et al., 2006, Whitaker et al., 2006, Wodarz and Gonzalez, 2006, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2005, Karcavich and Doe, 2005, Yamashita et al., 2005, Siller et al., 2004, Fanto et al., 2003, McDonald et al., 2003, Kaminker et al., 2002, Li and Vaessin, 2000, Deak et al., 1997)
      anon-WO0140519.15
      l(3)j12C8
      l(3)j6E2
      l(3)rH013
      l(3)rI160
      l(3)rJ806
      l(3)rK137
      l(3)rK204
      l(3)rL433
      l(3)rO534
      pros
      (Croset et al., 2018, Daniel et al., 2018, Gene Disruption Project members, 2018-, Lavoy et al., 2018, Mora et al., 2018, Shaikh and Tejedor, 2018, Li et al., 2017, Li et al., 2017, Poulton et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Wu et al., 2017, Blick et al., 2016, Bürglin and Affolter, 2016, Carbone et al., 2016, Froldi and Cheng, 2016, Losada-Perez et al., 2016, Narbonne-Reveau et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Schwartz et al., 2016, Shaikh et al., 2016, Takashima et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Xie et al., 2016, Enriquez et al., 2015, Jasper, 2015, Keder et al., 2015, Kok et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Biteau and Jasper, 2014, Gambetta and Müller, 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Komori et al., 2014, Neville et al., 2014, Tipping and Perrimon, 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Chai et al., 2013, Eisman and Kaufman, 2013, Garcia et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Noatynska et al., 2013, Southall et al., 2013, Berger et al., 2012, Carney et al., 2012, Fukui et al., 2012, Gutiérrez et al., 2012, Kapuria et al., 2012, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Spokony and White, 2012.11.14, Ulvklo et al., 2012, Zhu et al., 2012, Charlton-Perkins et al., 2011, Colonques et al., 2011, Hartl et al., 2011, Hochmuth et al., 2011, Kato et al., 2011, Kuzin et al., 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Neumüller et al., 2011, Rera et al., 2011, Sabino et al., 2011, Strand and Micchelli, 2011, Takashima et al., 2011, Berger et al., 2010, Chang et al., 2010, Forero et al., 2010, Forero et al., 2010, Guenin et al., 2010, Janic et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Lin et al., 2010, Tea and Luo, 2010.9.17, Tea and Luo, 2010.9.17, Tea et al., 2010, Zhang et al., 2010, Aerts et al., 2009, Andrews et al., 2009, Cabernard and Doe, 2009, Hazelett et al., 2009, Jiang et al., 2009, Kohsaka and Nose, 2009, Kurusu et al., 2009, Pickup et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Siddall et al., 2009, Simon et al., 2009, Song et al., 2009, Sousa-Nunes et al., 2009, Southall and Brand, 2009, Beckervordersandforth et al., 2008, Biteau et al., 2008, Bowman et al., 2008, Burnett et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Fabre et al., 2008, Font-Burgada et al., 2008, Hayashi et al., 2008, Kazama et al., 2008, Maurange et al., 2008, Miller et al., 2008, Morey et al., 2008, Ostrowski et al., 2008, Xie et al., 2008, Atwood et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Grosjean et al., 2007, Grueber et al., 2007, Guenin et al., 2007, Kohsaka et al., 2007, Koizumi et al., 2007, Laurençon et al., 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Thomas and van Meyel, 2007, Tountas and Fortini, 2007, Xie et al., 2007, Baril and Therrien, 2006, Bello et al., 2006, Cook, 2006.10.1, Fayazi et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Stroschein-Stevenson et al., 2006, Wodarz and Gonzalez, 2006, Budde, 2005, Burgler and Macdonald, 2005, Caussinus and Gonzalez, 2005, Clevers, 2005, Li and Carthew, 2005, Reeves and Posakony, 2005, Sarfare et al., 2005, Grad et al., 2004, Scamborova et al., 2004, Voas and Rebay, 2004, Bi et al., 2003, Cook et al., 2003, Grosjean et al., 2003, Doe, 2002.9.19, Kazemi-Esfarjani and Benzer, 2002, Gim et al., 2001)
      Name Synonyms
      Prospero
      (Daniel et al., 2018, Enriquez et al., 2018, Kato et al., 2018, Losada-Perez, 2018, Schwartz and Rhiner, 2018, Kraft et al., 2016, Li and Jasper, 2016, Poon et al., 2016, Quan et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2015, Gogendeau et al., 2015, Lu and Li, 2015, Singh, 2015, Wernet et al., 2015, Amcheslavsky et al., 2014, Jeibmann et al., 2014, Kuang et al., 2014, Loubéry and González-Gaitán, 2014, Ting et al., 2014, Vo et al., 2014, Bergstralh et al., 2013, Guo et al., 2013, Karpac et al., 2013, Ly et al., 2013, Ma et al., 2013, Marianes and Spradling, 2013, Noatynska et al., 2013, Puram and Bonni, 2013, Ruan et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Zeng et al., 2013, Berger et al., 2012, Felix et al., 2012, Kametaka et al., 2012, Kapuria et al., 2012, Kelsom and Lu, 2012, Moraru et al., 2012, Saini and Reichert, 2012, Song and Lu, 2012, Sun et al., 2012, Apidianakis and Rahme, 2011, Belacortu et al., 2011, Boyan and Reichert, 2011, Duan et al., 2011, Gontang et al., 2011, Hasegawa et al., 2011, Kato et al., 2011, Lee et al., 2011, Rebeiz et al., 2011, Richter et al., 2011, Stephan et al., 2011, Takashima et al., 2011, Viktorin et al., 2011, Bardin et al., 2010, Bayraktar et al., 2010, Berger et al., 2010, Cordero and Cagan, 2010, Fan et al., 2010, Forero et al., 2010, Kechris et al., 2010, Kitajima et al., 2010, Lin et al., 2010, Mathur et al., 2010, Mathur et al., 2010, Monastirioti et al., 2010, Reddy et al., 2010, Ren et al., 2010, Shaw et al., 2010, Siegrist et al., 2010, Stacey et al., 2010, Tea et al., 2010, von Hilchen et al., 2010, Zeng et al., 2010, Adolph et al., 2009, Almudi et al., 2009, Andrews et al., 2009, Atwood and Prehoda, 2009, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Chatterjee and Ip, 2009, Dziedzic et al., 2009, Izergina et al., 2009, Jiang and Edgar, 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Mao and Freeman, 2009, Meyer et al., 2009, Miller et al., 2009, Miller et al., 2009, Mummery-Widmer et al., 2009, Pickup et al., 2009, Siddall et al., 2009, Simon et al., 2009, Wolfstetter et al., 2009, Beckervordersandforth et al., 2008, Bello et al., 2008, Boone and Doe, 2008, Charlton-Perkins et al., 2008, Cheng et al., 2008, Choi et al., 2008, Deb et al., 2008, de Wit et al., 2008, Duong et al., 2008, Krahn and Wodarz, 2008, Lin, 2008, Mao et al., 2008, McNeill et al., 2008, Morey et al., 2008, Moyer and Jacobs, 2008, Nishimura et al., 2008, O'Farrell and Kylsten, 2008, Ostrowski et al., 2008, Petrovic and Hummel, 2008, Schaefer et al., 2008, Sousa-Nunes et al., 2008, Speicher et al., 2008, Wirtz-Peitz et al., 2008, Wirtz-Peitz et al., 2008, Xie et al., 2008, Yamashita and Fuller, 2008, Zhu et al., 2008, Atwood et al., 2007, Bello et al., 2007, Grillenzoni et al., 2007, Kinel-Tahan et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Ohlstein and Spradling, 2007, Sharma and Nirenberg, 2007, Speicher et al., 2007, Thomas and van Meyel, 2007, Yamazaki et al., 2007, Yuasa and Hiromi, 2007, Bello et al., 2006, Betschinger et al., 2006, Ceron et al., 2006, Chang et al., 2006, Gallagher and Knoblich, 2006, Hutterer et al., 2006, Jones et al., 2006, Mao et al., 2006, Morrison and Kimble, 2006, Sese et al., 2006, Slack et al., 2006, Spradling, 2006, Vrailas et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wheeler et al., 2006, Whitaker et al., 2006, Almeida and Bray, 2005, Hampoelz et al., 2005, Kanai et al., 2005, Yamashita et al., 2005, Fanto et al., 2003, McDonald et al., 2003, Kaminker et al., 2002, Dawes-Hoang and Wieschaus, 2001, Gim et al., 2001)
      a la voile et a la vapeur
      prospero
      (Liu and Jin, 2017, Perry et al., 2017, Friedrich et al., 2016, Losada-Perez et al., 2016, Takashima et al., 2016, Wang and Xiong, 2016, Enriquez et al., 2015, Gambetta and Müller, 2014, Southall et al., 2014, Laver et al., 2013, Roti et al., 2013, Thanawala et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Fukui et al., 2012, Kapuria et al., 2012, Saini and Reichert, 2012, Venables et al., 2012, Bantignies et al., 2011, Charlton-Perkins et al., 2011, Furman and Bukharina, 2011, Ganesan et al., 2011, Hochmuth et al., 2011, Kuzina et al., 2011, Kuzin et al., 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Rera et al., 2011, Royo et al., 2011, Sabino et al., 2011, San-Juán and Baonza, 2011, Strand and Micchelli, 2011, Biteau et al., 2010, Janic et al., 2010, Weng et al., 2010, Zhang et al., 2010, Apidianakis et al., 2009, Blumenstiel et al., 2009, Borah et al., 2009, Edwards and Meinertzhagen, 2009, Izergina et al., 2009, Kohsaka and Nose, 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Shevelyov et al., 2009, Southall and Brand, 2009, Beckervordersandforth et al., 2008, Burnett et al., 2008, Chia et al., 2008, Font-Burgada et al., 2008, Hayashi et al., 2008, Kazama et al., 2008, Petrovic and Hummel, 2008, Grosjean et al., 2007, Guenin et al., 2007, Kaul and Bateman, 2007, Slack et al., 2007, Tountas and Fortini, 2007, Xie et al., 2007, Choksi et al., 2006, Irion et al., 2006, Kiebler and Bassell, 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Bi et al., 2005, Gotta, 2005, Grosskortenhaus et al., 2005, Scamborova et al., 2004, Touchon et al., 2004, Voas and Rebay, 2004, Bi et al., 2003, Grosjean et al., 2003, Kazemi-Esfarjani and Benzer, 2002, Colson, 1998.5.26, Fuerstenberg et al., 1998, Matsuzaki, 1992.6.11)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010941
      • FBgn0011397
      • FBgn0011437
      • FBgn0011497
      • FBgn0011499
      • FBgn0011504
      • FBgn0011507
      • FBgn0011515
      • FBgn0011524
      • FBgn0020281
      • FBgn0024917
      • FBgn0026852
      • FBgn0044730
      • FBgn0063172
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (930)