DGluRIIA, DGluR-II, DGluR-IIA, GluR, GluRII
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\GluRIIA using the Feature Mapper tool.
GluRIIA mRNA localizes to cytoplasmic puncta in muscles 6 and 7 and is not associated with the neuromuscular junction.
GluRIIA expression is first detected in late stage 12 embryos. The first expression is in a segmentally repeated pattern in abdominal segments 2-7. The pattern consists of one dorsal group and one ventral group of somatic mesodermal cells in each hemisegment. By mid stage 13, expression is also observed in a lateral group of cells. As development proceeds, the pattern becomes more extensive and complex and comprises cells of the developing dorsal, lateral, and ventral somatic muscles. Expression is apparent in the thoracic segments at stage 14. By stage 16, expression is strong in all somatic muscles and in pharyngeal muscle. Weaker expression is observed in visceral muscle. Expression in larval muscles was assayed to determine if staining is observed throughout the muscle fibers or only in the areas of innervation. Results indicate that expression occurs throughout the individual muscle fibers and not just at synaptic sites.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\GluRIIA in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: GluRIIA CG6992
GluRIIC is required for synaptic localisation of GluRIIA and GluRIIB proteins. Either GluRIIA or GluRIIB, but not both, is required for synaptic localisation of GluRIIC protein. GluRIIA and GluRIIB proteins compete with each other for access to GluRIIC protein and subsequent localisation to the synapse.
Study of mutants reveals that a decrease in postsynaptic receptors leads to an increase in presynaptic transmitter release, indicating that postsynaptic activity controls a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic function.
Developmental changes of GluRIIA distribution in wild-type embryos are characterised. GluRIIA receptors are found clustered in the non-nerve-contacted areas at the beginning of synaptogenesis. As synapse formation proceeds these clusters disperse and are found at the neuromuscular junction. By rearing parats1 embryos, at restrictive temperatures, starting at different times during synaptogenesis, it is found that neural activity at a certain period of development profoundly affects the distribution of GluRIIA receptors.
Temporal and spatial expression patterns during embryogenesis and in larval muscle are determined.
Glutamate receptor channels in Drosophila embryos and larvae have been studied using the patch-clamp technique.
Receptor localization can be determined by application of L-glutamate and monitering with patch clamping techniques.
In aneural pros mutants functional glutamate receptors are expressed at normal time and distribution over the muscle surface but subsequently fail to cluster to the neuromuscular junction as they would in wild type. The second phase of glutamate receptor synthesis characteristic of wild type fails to occur. The few pros mutants where innervation occurs, but is delayed, show late clustering and late second phase synthesis of glutamate receptors, indicating that these events are innervation-dependent. Likewise, if the neuromuscular junction occurs at an aberrant site, so does the glutamate receptor cluster.
GluRIIA expression in the postsynaptic membrane is reduced by changes in presynaptic electrical activity. Presynaptic electrical activity during embryonic synaptogenesis is constitutively required for GluRIIA expression at the NMJ and to induce receptor clustering at the NMJ.