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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sim
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
single-minded
Annotation Symbol
CG7771
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004666
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

S8, l(3)S8, shm

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:13,057,755..13,078,124 [+]
Recombination map

3-53

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:13057755..13078124
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcription factor that functions as a master developmental regulator controlling midline development of the ventral nerve cord. Required to correctly specify the formation of the central brain complex, which controls walking behavior. Also required for correct patterning of the embryonic genital disk and anal pad anlage. Plays a role in synapse development.
(UniProt, P05709)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sim: single minded
Embryonic lethal. Denticle bands of all segments narrow. Both head skeleton ventral arms and anal plates fused. In the ventral nervous system, transverse commissures lacking entirely. Midline neurons and supportive mesectodermal cells missing. Germline viable with no maternal component. Deficiency test indicates that sim1 is amorphic. In normal genotypes, transcript first noted at cellular blastoderm in a pair of longitudinal rows of cells at the interface between the presumptive mesoderm and the neurogenic ectoderm. At the end of gastrulation, the mesoderm has invaginated into the ventral furrow and the two rows of expressing cells have come together in the ventral midline and both transcript and protein expressed in a row of cells in the midline and in an annulus around the presumptive anterior midgut. By eleven hours of development, protein is found in the cell types missing in the midline of the central nervous system of mutant embryos, more in mesectodermal cells than neuronal elements, and in a subset of cells of the foregut. Antibody staining confined to nuclei.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - bHLH - pas homology - required for the developmental specification of the ventral midline

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\sim or the JBrowse view of Dmel\sim for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082710
2825
688
FBtr0082711
3162
664
FBtr0334613
2882
675
FBtr0334614
3186
672
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.5, 3.0 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082178
75.7
688
7.07
FBpp0082179
72.8
664
6.82
FBpp0306680
74.0
675
6.89
FBpp0306681
73.6
672
6.82
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments

The carboxy-terminal half of the sim protein contains a number of alanine-alanine-glutamine repeats, a proline-rich region, and a glutamine-rich region.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein.

(UniProt, P05709)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sim using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (21 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000548738
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001127032
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000548738
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000548738
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001067
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
distribution deduced from reporter
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mesectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

posterior ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: until 6h AEL. Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RA.

organism

Comment: until 15h AEL. Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

organism

Comment: Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

organism

Comment: Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

organism

Comment: Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

embryonic/larval brain

Comment: Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

organism

Comment: 24-48h APF. Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

organism

Comment: 72-96h APF. Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

organism

Comment: Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

adult head

Comment: Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

adult thorax

Comment: Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

adult abdomen

Comment: Assay specific to sim transcript sim-RB.

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

sim is expressed in the ventral regions of the embryonic foregut and hindgut.

Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.

sim is first detected in the mesoderm at stage 11 in a cluster of 3-5 cells per hemisegment lying just adjacent to the ventral midline. In late stage 11, a more laterally place cluster is observed. Shortly after their appearance, sim-expressing mesodermal cells migrate laterally away from the midline towards the body wall. By the beginning of germ band retraction, the two cell clusters merge and form a single row of sim-positive cells on either side of the ventral midline. These cells elongate and begin to take on the morphology of muscle syncytia. sim expression begins to fade shortly after muscle cell fusion. Weak staining can be detected later in a subset of ventral oblique muscles.

sim protein is first observed at the end of gastrulation in a strip of cells along the ventral midline. The sim-positive cells extend up into the presumptive head region where they form an annulus around the presumptive anterior midgut invagination. By hour 5, the neuroblasts begin delaminating from the ectodermal epithelium. sim-positive cells delaminate to give rise to the midline cells of the CNS. sim protein is expressed in precursors of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells lying at the midline but is found at different level in different cells. By later stages, expression is low in the median neuroblast and in the VUM neurons and is high in the six midline glial cells.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{2.8sim/lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{3.7sim/lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{7.1sim-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mesectoderm

Comment: reference states 5 hr AEL

Reporter: P{7.8sim-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-sim.3.7}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-sim.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}simS147912
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: ubiquitous expression

Reporter: P{sim-GAL4.B2.4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sim-GAL4.F1.4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sim-GAL4.L1.0}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sim-GAL4.M582}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sim-GAL4.N494}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sim-GAL4.P261}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sim-GAL4.Q255}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sim-GFP.A1.0}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sim in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 36 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 25 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sim
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sim
Deletions and Duplications ( 21 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
eye photoreceptor cell & axon (with sim2)
eye photoreceptor cell & axon (with simry75)
ventral nerve cord primordium & mitotic cell cycle
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (11)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
6 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906BQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504IF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04BH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0484 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G06FQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
4 of 10
4 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    enhanceable
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein.
    (UniProt, P05709 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-53

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:13,057,755..13,078,124 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    87D11-87D11
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}CtBP03463 and P{lacW}B52s2249&P{lacW}flflL4179
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    87E1-87E2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    87D-87E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Maps just distal to pic.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (17)
    Genomic Clones (27)
    cDNA Clones (2)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments

        The sim product negatively regulates dac expression in the embryonic head.

        sim is required for the association of lamina neurons with R axons.

        ChEST reveals this is a target of Mef2.

        rho, sim and vn are required for the formation of the brain lateral to the foregut cells.

        D and vvl act in concert with sim to control midline gene expression in the embryo.

        N activity is required for sim expression in cellularising embryos. Su(H) activity is required to upregulate sim expression in the mesectoderm, and to prevent ectopic expression of sim dorsally in the neurectoderm in cellularising embryos.

        Five EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.

        Nuclear localisation of the tgo protein is dependent on the presence of either sim or trh protein, and nuclear entry of sim or trh protein requires interaction with tgo protein.

        Expression of sim is required for the formation of the dorsal medial cells.

        sim and trh activate transcription by forming dimers with the tgo protein. Gene dosage studies reveal in vivo interactions between sim and tgo, and trh and tgo. The interacting proteins in vivo control CNS midline and tracheal transcription and development.

        The PAS domain of sim confers its target gene specificity.

        Dorsal median cells fail to form in sim mutants.

        Facilitating the expression of spi, rho and S is the only sim- dependent contribution of the midline to patterning the ventral ectoderm, since the mutant sim ectodermal defects can be overcome by expression of secreted spi in the ectoderm.

        sim functions to repress ventral ectodermal cell fates.

        In sim mutants mesectodermal cells adopt the fates of neighbouring ventral ectodermal cells and targeted sim expression in embryos results in loss of epidermal cells.

        rho is not required for early expression of sim in mesectodermal or ventral ectodermal cells.

        DNA binding coimmunoprecipitation assays studying the interaction of human Arnt with other PAS proteins demonstrates human Arnt forms heterodimers with per and sim, by means of the PAS domain, in a cooperative way.

        Ectopic transplantations of wild-type midline cells into sim mutants suggest that the ventral midline is required for the correct positioning of the cells.

        sim can function as a transcriptional activator. Three independent activation domains are identified in the carboxy terminal region that include areas rich in Ser, Thr, Gln and Pro. Germ line transformation experiments indicate that the carboxy terminal activation domains, the PAS dimerisation domain and the putative DNA binding basic domain of sim are required for expression of CNS midline genes in vivo.

        Mutations of sim do not result in an absence of somatic muscles but a mislocalisation of ventral muscle precursor cells such that muscle fibres form across the inside of the embryo instead of along the body wall. Mutations that eliminate sim muscle precursor expression but leave CNS expression intact reveal no abnormalities in muscle formation. Thus the muscle defect results from a non-autonomous influence of the CNS on myogenesis.

        N product is required for activation of sim.

        sim is a master regulator of mesectodermal cell differentiation.

        Sequence analysis of sim, Tl and sli revealed a conserved sequence ACGTG that resembles the mammalian xenobiotic response element. This motif forms the core of an element required for CNS midline transcription.

        The sim and per genes contain an amino acid motif of approximately 270 residues, termed PAS, also present in the two subunits of the mammalian dioxin receptor.

        Analysis of sim mutant embryos implies that ventral epidermal cell fate is influenced by the CNS midline cells.

        The sim gene uses two promoters with overlapping temporal specificities. The late promoter is autoregulated by sim.

        sna protein binds to sites within sim regulatory sequences.

        sim gene product is required for the proper development of the ventralmost cuticle and the CNS midline.

        sim is required for normal midline gene expression, sim autoregulates its expression in the midline cells.

        sim is required for normal gene expression of sli, Tl, en, cdi and rho.

        Mutant analysis demonstrates that sim is required for the proper differentiation of the midline cells from their progenitors.

        The sim collapsed midline mutant phenotype may be due to the absence of sli expression in the midline cells.

        sim is required for the emergence of a specific subset of neuronal and nonneuronal precursor cells lying along the midline of the developing neuroepithelium.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (31)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        l(3)87Ea
        l(3)E320
        l(3)RD
        schm
        sim
        (Das et al., 2020, Deshpande et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Khajouei and Sinha, 2018, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Jussen et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Kim et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, O'Connell and Reeves, 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Rembold et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2013, Hong et al., 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Jafari et al., 2012, Park and Hong, 2012, Wheeler et al., 2012, Yamakawa et al., 2012, Yuan et al., 2012, Freer et al., 2011, Freer et al., 2011, Fulkerson and Estes, 2011, Helman et al., 2011, Levine, 2011, Lynch and Roth, 2011, Mrinal et al., 2011, Schmidt et al., 2011, Stagg et al., 2011, Tio et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Busch and Tanimoto, 2010, Evans et al., 2010, Frise et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Morozova et al., 2010, Sugie et al., 2010, von Hilchen et al., 2010, Birkholz et al., 2009, Cande et al., 2009, Chanet et al., 2009, Chung et al., 2009, Huh et al., 2009, Marco et al., 2009, Southall and Brand, 2009, Wheeler et al., 2009, Crocker et al., 2008, Estes et al., 2008, Page and Olofsson, 2008, Qi et al., 2008, Wilkin et al., 2008, de Velasco et al., 2007, Grueber et al., 2007, Jiang and Crews, 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Maeda et al., 2007, Maeda et al., 2007, Nagel et al., 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Udolph et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Zhang et al., 2007, Anderson et al., 2006, Bardin and Schweisguth, 2006, De Renzis et al., 2006, Lawrence, 2006, Wheeler et al., 2006, Zinzen et al., 2006, Apitz et al., 2005, Merianda et al., 2005, Sano et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Markstein et al., 2004, Paladi and Tepass, 2004, Chang et al., 2003, Cowden and Levine, 2003, Michaud and Tanguay, 2003, Chang et al., 2001, Lee et al., 1999)
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0003333
        • FBgn0003409
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (391)