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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\cas
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
castor
Annotation Symbol
CG2102
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004878
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
castor (cas) encodes a transcription factor expressed in the latest stage of embryonic neuroblast lineages. It represses the prior redundant genes, pdm2 nub, and precedes the expression of grh. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13]
Also Known As

ming, l(3)neo33

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:5,712,975..5,716,805 [-]
Recombination map

3-47.5

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:5712975..5716805
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcription factor that specifies expression of key genes in developing central nervous system (CNS). Essential for many, if not all, late developing neuroblastoma (NB) sublineages. Binds to the 5'-[CG]C[CT][CT]AAAAA[AT]-3' DNA sequence, like hb, suggesting that cas and hb act as a late regulators in early and late CNS NB sublineage, respectively. Acts by repressing expression of nub/pdm-1 and pdm2/pdm-2 POU genes, and restrict their pattern of expression in appropriate cells. Required for a full expression of vvl/drifter and acj6/I-POU; it is however unknown whether it directly activates these genes. Controls engrailed (en) expression in the ventral nerve chord.
(UniProt, Q7M3M8)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - zinc finger - temporal network regulator the development of late CNS sublineages - a genetic cascade involving and specifies the abdominal leucokinergic neurons in the Drosophila CNS - Pdm and Castor close successive temporal identity windows in the NB3-1 lineage - triggers genes in a specific lineage that act to sub-divide the broader Cas window

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\cas or the JBrowse view of Dmel\cas for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0078725
3151
793
FBtr0339518
2845
691
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.3 (northern blot)

3.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0078374
87.9
793
7.22
FBpp0308601
76.9
691
7.25
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

799 (aa); 88 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\cas using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:nob; FB:FBgn0002946
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:drl; FB:FBgn0015380
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000278753
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

ventral nerve cord primordium

Comment: reported as ventral nerve cord anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data

cas transcripts are first detected at stage 9 in a subset of midline cells. Slightly later, one neuroblast in every hemisegment expresses cas. By late stage 11, cas transcripts are expressed in 17 identified neuroblasts in every hemisegment of the CNS. Transcript levels decrease by stage 14 and are undetectable by stage 16. Transcripts are detected only in midline cells, ganglion mother cells and neuroblasts and not in the neurogenic ectoderm or neurons.

The highest levels of cas mRNA expression coincide with embryonic CNS development but low levels can be detected in third instar larvae and adults. Expression occurs in a restricted set of neuroblasts and glia in the cephalic regions and the ventral nerve cord. Expression is seen in both the lateral CNS and the midline and the midline expression shows an anterior to posterior gradient.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

cas protein is expressed in follicle stem cells, interfollicle (stalk) cells, and polar follicle cells, but not oocyte associated (main body) follicle cells.

cas protein is expressed during oogenesis in prefollicle cells, and in interfollicle (stalk) cells, and polar follicle cells.

Neuroblast NB3-3 produces a series of interneurons, including a cluster of 11 eve-positive interneurons (the Eve-lateral or EL neurons). Kr is expressed at the first division of NB3-3 and specifies an eve-negative interneuron, followed by production of the 11 EL neurons, six of which are at least partially specified by cas.

cas is expressed in the NB5-6 lineage in thoracic and abdominal segments and in all more anterior segments in a late temporal window.

cas is seen to be expressed in two waves in the thoracic neuroblast NB3-3, not being detected in late embryonic stage 13 to late embryonic stage 14. However, in the abdominal neuroblast NB3-3 the first wave ends earlier (end of stage 12), and the second wave both begins and ends earlier (late stage 13 to early stage 14).

Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - d2, d4, v4; deuterocerebrum - d1, d2, d4-7,v3, v6-8; protocerebrum - ad5, ad6, ad8-11, ad13, ad16-18, av1, cd2-4, cd6-8, cd10-21, cv1-4, cv6-9, pd1-14, pd17-19, pv1, pv3

In larvae, cas is expressed in disseminated cells on the ventral side of the VNC. On the dorsal side of the third instar larval brain, cas is expressed in five linearly organised cell clusters on both sides of the interhemispheric junction. Expression of cas gradually disappears from the CNS during pupation, and no clear signal is seen in adult brain.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{cas-GAL4.6}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{cas-GAL4.8}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}cas3921
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}cas1530
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\cas in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 29 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 16 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of cas
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of cas
Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
5 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907ZZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500ZG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00FZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00EU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0364 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
6 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-47.5

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:5,712,975..5,716,805 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    83C1-83C1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Atus1938 and P{lacW}casj1C2
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    83C1-83C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    83C-83C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (16)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (23)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: cas l(3)neo33

    Source for merge of: cas CG2102

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    nub/pdm2 and cas regulate late-born motor neuron identity within the NB7-1 lineage; nub/pdm2 specifies fourth-born U4 motor neuron identity, while nub/pdm2/cas together specify fifth-born U5 motor neuron identity.

    cas is involved in post-embryonic brain development.

    The embryonic CNS contains sequentially generated neuroblast sublineages that can be distinguished by their expression of either hb, nub or cas. hb and cas may directly silence nub expression in early and late developing sublineages, given that nub cis-regulatory DNA contains approximately 32 hb/cas-binding sites and its enhancer(s) are ectopically activated in cas- neuroblasts. Targeted misexpression of cas in all neuronal lineages reduces nub expression without altering hb expression. By ensuring correct POU gene expression boundaries hb and cas maintain temporal subdivisions in the cell-identity circuitry controlling CNS development.

    cas, eve, unpg and ac are expressed in specific neuroblast sublineages. Expression studies using pbl and stg mutants suggest that neuroblasts have an intrinsic gene regulatory hierarchy controlling unpg and ac expression but that cell cycle- or cytokinesis-dependent mechanisms are required for cas and eve CNS expression.

    Sequence analysis of cas demonstrates that cas encodes a putative zinc finger protein which shares homology with members of the TFIIIA superfamily.

    cas was identified by an enhancer trap insertion expressed in a subset of neuroblasts at reproducible points in their cell lineage, and is proposed to control cell fate within neuroblast cell lineages. cas is required for the correct CNS expression of engrailed, and loss of cas function results in precise alterations in CNS gene expression, defects in axonogenesis and embryonic lethality.

    Expression analysed in CNS study of neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells, using an enhancer trap to reveal the expression pattern.

    cas encodes a putative transcription factor whose expression is required for normal development of a subset of neuronal precursors.

    castor mutations cause loss of axonal density & aberrant engrailed expression late in CNS development.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    "ming" means "fate" in Chinese.

    "plx" ("pollux") and "cas" ("castor") are named after the Greek mythological brothers due to their close apposition.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 42 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(3)j1C2
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0005769
    • FBgn0011311
    • FBgn0011466
    • FBgn0014137
    • FBgn0037367
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (246)