Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Sam-S
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
S-adenosylmethionine Synthetase
Annotation Symbol
CG2674
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0005278
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Methionine adenosyltransferase (2.5.1.6)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
Su(z)5, M(2)21AB, SamS, SAM synthase, Minute (2) 21AB
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:106,903..114,432 [+]
Recombination map
2-0.5
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the AdoMet synthase family. (P40320)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + L-methionine + H(2)O = phosphate + diphosphate + S-adenosyl-L- methionine (2.5.1.6)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER ALKYL OR ARYL (OTHER THAN METHYL) GROUP TRANSFERASES -
The Other alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) group transferases is a collection of transferases that do not fit into any of the other major transferases transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. The reaction comprises two steps that are both catalyzed by the same enzyme: formation of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and triphosphate, and subsequent hydrolysis of the triphosphate.
(UniProt, P40320)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
M(2)21AB
Body size and bristles reduced in heterozygotes; irregular facets in upper half of eye. Heterozygous females virtually sterile at temperatures above 18; surviving offspring frequently have missing legs or halteres, somewhat narrowed wings, and reduced bristles. Homozygotes lethal. Selected on the basis of a dominant suppressor of zeste phenotype. Characterized by relatively frequent reversions of all features of the phenotype save homozygous lethality. One such revertant found to be deficient for the tip of 2L, suggesting a gain of function rather than haplo insufficiency as the nature of the mutation (Kennison).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
12
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Sam-S or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Sam-S for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Variable use of small exons; supported combination results in frameshift and premature stop in downstream exon.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Multiphase exon postulated: exon reading frame differs in alternative transcripts; overlap >20aa.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089429
2293
408
FBtr0089428
2184
200
FBtr0089431
2380
408
FBtr0089430
2380
408
FBtr0089437
2387
408
FBtr0089433
2353
408
FBtr0089436
1971
381
FBtr0089432
2283
408
FBtr0089434
2429
408
FBtr0089435
2309
408
FBtr0308091
961
115
FBtr0330656
2298
138
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088445
44.7
408
6.51
FBpp0088444
22.0
200
6.23
FBpp0088447
44.8
408
6.51
FBpp0088446
44.7
408
6.51
FBpp0088926
44.7
408
6.51
FBpp0088449
44.7
408
6.51
FBpp0088452
42.2
381
6.58
FBpp0088448
44.7
408
6.51
FBpp0088450
44.7
408
6.51
FBpp0088451
44.8
408
6.51
FBpp0300434
12.2
115
4.82
FBpp0303506
15.2
138
7.47
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

408 aa isoforms: Sam-S-PC, Sam-S-PJ
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Sam-S using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (5 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002133
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with EMBL:J03477
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with protein_id:AAA42106 .1
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000239344
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000239344
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Sam-S in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 12 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Sam-S
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Sam-S
Deletions and Duplications ( 16 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
14 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909G1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504LW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0HYP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X06EA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08Z2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-0.5
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:106,903..114,432 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    21B2-21B2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}spenk06805&P{lacW}l(2)k13604k13604 and P{lacW}U2af38k14504
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    21B1-21B2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (19)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (247)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: M(2)21AB CG2674
    Additional comments
    FlyBase Curator comment: Renamed from 'M(2)21AB' to 'Sam-S' because this gene has not been validated as a typical Minute gene, and because 'Sam-S' was the first meaningful symbol to be used for this gene in a published paper.
    Other Comments
    Not a Minute locus.
    Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.
    Mutant M(2)21AB is caused by changes in the gene encoding the enzyme S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Dominant suppressor and enhancer effects are likely to be caused by a decrease in spermine concentration and it is also likely that polyamines are important molecules in the assembly of higher order chromatin structure.
    Isolated from a Drosophila pupal cDNA library.
    M(2)21AB has been cloned and sequenced.
    One of a class of genes (see MIN record) that when present in one, rather than two, copies, produce a characteristic phenotype consisting of short slender bristles and delayed development.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 94 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
    Reported As
    Name Synonyms
    Methionine adenosyl transferase
    Minute (2) 21AB
    S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase
    S-adenosylmethionine Synthetase
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0011287
    • FBgn0031218
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (96)