General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ash1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
absent, small, or homeotic discs 1
Annotation Symbol
CG8887
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0005386
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (2.1.1.43)
Gene Snapshot
absent, small, or homeotic discs 1 (ash1) encodes a histone methyltransferase involved in transcription regulation. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13]
Also Known As
ash-1, dash
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:19,590,773..19,598,755 [-]
Recombination map
3-45
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the class V-like SAM-binding methyltransferase superfamily. Histone-lysine methyltransferase family. SET2 subfamily. (Q9VW15)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + L-lysine-[histone] = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N(6)-methyl-L-lysine-[histone] (2.1.1.43)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
SET DOMAIN LYSINE METHYLTRANSFERASES -
SET domain lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) catalyze the addition of methyl groups to lysine residues. SET domain KMTs possess a domain that was original characterized in the D.mel KMTs Su(var)3-9, E(z) and trx. (Adapted from FBrf0216343).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Trithorax group (TrxG) protein that has histone methyltransferase activity (PubMed:13679578, PubMed:16882982). Specifically trimethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3, a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation (PubMed:13679578, PubMed:16882982). TrxG proteins are generally required to maintain the transcriptionally active state of homeotic genes throughout development. Does not act as a coactivator required for transcriptional activation, but specifically prevents inappropriate Polycomb Group (PcG) silencing of homeotic genes in cells in which they must stay transcriptionally active (PubMed:15031712).
(UniProt, Q9VW15)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ash1: absent, small, or homeotic discs
Most alleles homozygous lethal; stage of lethality variable. Surviving and pharate adults display transformations including haltere to wing, first and third legs to second leg, genitalia to leg or antenna; ash18 and ash110 show transformation of posterior to anterior wing margin. Homeotic transformations also seen in clones of homozygous cells in otherwise heterozygous flies. Larvae homozygous for ash112, a severe allele, displays a high incidence of failure to form imaginal disks, especially antennal, genital, haltere, and wing disks.
dash: discs absent, small, or homeotic (A. Shearn)
Homozygotes lethal at prepupal-pupal stage; imaginal discs described as homeotic, with the second leg and the wing discs described as like engrailed. Disc and cell autonomous.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ash1 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ash1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0306009
7600
2226
FBtr0306010
7615
2226
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
7.5 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0297151
246.3
2226
10.19
FBpp0297152
246.3
2226
10.19
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

2226 aa isoforms: ash1-PB, ash1-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
270 (kD observed)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of a large multiprotein complex distinct from complexes containing ash2 or brm (PubMed:9735357). Interacts (via SET domain) with trx (via SET domain) (PubMed:10454589, PubMed:10656681). Interacts with nej/cbp (PubMed:11094082).
(UniProt, Q9VW15)
Domain
The SET domain is sufficient for methyltransferase activity.
(UniProt, Q9VW15)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ash1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (23 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ash1 transcripts are present at all stages of development but are less abundant in larvae than in pupae. In ovaries, transcripts are detected in nurse cells and are most abundant in stage 10 egg chambers. ash1 transcripts are detected in preblastoderm and blastoderm embryos and at later stages. In third instar larvae, transcripts are detected in imaginal discs but not in most larval tissues.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ash1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 44 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of ash1
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
    Other relevant insertions
    insertion of enhancer trap binary system
    Name
    Expression Data
    Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ash1
    Allele of ash1
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ash1
    Deletions and Duplications ( 29 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    9 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (16)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Mmus\Kmt2e
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
    8 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (11)
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (10)
    8 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (7)
    2 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900M2 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150157 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00XX )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00W8 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G02U7 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 2 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Component of a large multiprotein complex distinct from complexes containing ash2 or brm (PubMed:9735357). Interacts (via SET domain) with trx (via SET domain) (PubMed:10454589, PubMed:10656681). Interacts with nej/cbp (PubMed:11094082).
      (UniProt, Q9VW15 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-45
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3L:19,590,773..19,598,755 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      76B8-76B9
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}MESR6EP3142 and P{lacW}l(3)L3809L3809
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      76B5-76B9
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      3-46.6
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (13)
      Genomic Clones (16)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (25)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for identity of: mnd l(3)SG29
        Source for database merge of
        Source for merge of: l(3)ds5 l(3)SG29
        Additional comments
        Other Comments
        DNA-protein interactions:GEO_GSE30820 .
        The ash1 protein may function to maintain a favorable methylation state of dm targets, allowing subsequent activation by dm protein.
        ash1 is required for methylation of lysine 4 residues on His3.
        Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
        ash1 and ash2 are trans-regulatory elements of homeotic selector gene regulation. ash1 is required for the functioning of the Ubx ABX/BX enhancer element, regulation involves different cis-regulatory regions that than of ash1.
        The intensity of trx binding to larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes is strongly decreased in larvae carrying mutations in ash1.
        ash1 is one of the trithorax group of genes. ash1 is required in imaginal disc and histoblast derived tissues, and for oogenesis.
        ash1 gene locus has been characterised.
        ash1 mutant larvae may have small or absent imaginal discs or express homeotic transformations. ash1 has been isolated and characterised.
        Genetic tests were used to confirm that ash1 and ash2 belong to a functionally related class of genes, mutations in which cause a wide variety of homeotic transformations that are similar to the transformations caused by trx. Double heterozygotes of ash1 alleles and Df(3R)red-P93 show a significant penetrance of homeotic transformations. Heterozygosity of ash1 alleles increases the penetrance of homeotic transformations in progeny derived from fs(1)h1 hemizygous mothers: the increase in penetrance is proportional to the loss of ash1 function.
        A member of the trithorax group of genes. Encodes a Zinc finger protein required for imaginal disc and histoblast development, and for oogenesis.
        Most alleles homozygous lethal; stage of lethality variable. Surviving and pharate adults display transformations including haltere to wing, first and third legs to second leg, genitalia to leg or antenna;
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        l(3)SG29a
        Name Synonyms
        Absent, small or homeotic 1
        Absent, small or homeotic discs 1
        Absent, small, or homeotic disc 1
        absent small or homeotic 1
        absent, small, or homeotic discs 1
        discs absent, small, or homeotic
        discs absent, small, or homeotic-1
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0000138
        • FBgn0004672
        • FBgn0005228
        Datasets (1)
        Study focus (1)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        • bait_protein
        Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
        References (219)