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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\msl-2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
male-specific lethal 2
Annotation Symbol
CG3241
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0005616
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2) encodes the key male-specific subunit of the male-specific-lethal dosage compensation complex. It induces or stabilizes all other components. Homozygous mutant males die, while msl-2 ectopic expression kills females. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
MSL2, MSL, kmA
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:3,462,218..3,466,112 [-]
Recombination map
2-10
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the MSL2 family. (P50534)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER RING DOMAIN UBIQUITIN LIGASES -
The RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain co-ordinates two Zn2+ ions via conserved Cys and His residues. Most proteins which contain a RING finger are assumed to be ubiquitin (E3) ligases. The RING finger binds ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and promotes direct transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. (Adapted from FBrf0215242 and PMID:19489725).
MALE SPECIFIC LETHAL COMPLEX -
The Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is a chromatin modifying complex composed of five protein subunits and two non-coding RNAs. MSL is involved in X chromosome dosage compensation in males. (Adapted from FBrf0228243).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
The Msl proteins are essential for elevating transcription of the single X chromosome in the male (X chromosome dosage compensation). Msl-2 is required for translation and/or stability of msl-1 in males. In complex with msl-1, acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes ubiquitination of histone H2B.
(UniProt, P50534)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
kmA: killer of males
Homozygous males die during embryogenesis.
msl-2
Homozygous male embryos hatch but die as much as fourteen days later in larval or prepupal stages; females and heterozygous males survive; no maternal effect. Viability of two-X individuals that develop as phenotypic males (tra2) or intersexes (dsx) is unaffected by msl-1, indicating that the one-X condition is required for msl-1 lethality. No interaction with mle or msl-1 (Belote, 1983, Genetics 105: 881-96). Few homozygous msl-22 gynandromorphs survive; XO patches small, with small bristles, and mostly confined to abdomen (Uenoyama, Uchida, Fukunaga, and Oishi, 1982, Genetics 102: 223-31). Pole cells from msl-2 male embryos capable of undergoing normal spermatogenesis when transplanted into wild-type hosts (Bachiller and Sanchez, 1986, Dev. Biol. 118: 379-84). Females heterozygous for Sxlf1 and homozygous (and to a lesser extent heterozygous) for msl-2 show signs of intersexual development; effects greater when mother homozygous for msl-2 [Uenoyama, Fukunaga, and Oishi, 1982, Genetics 102: 233-43 (fig.); Skripsky and Lucchesi, 1982, Dev. Biol. 94: 153-64 (fig.)]. Concluded to be defective in dosage compensation in males based on decreased levels of X-linked-enzyme activities (G6PD, 6GPD, FUM) but not autosomally encoded enzymes (ADH, AO, GPDH, IDH) in homozygous msl-21 male larvae when compared with non-msl controls (Belote and Lucchesi, 1980, Nature 285: 573-75).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
chromatin component - ring finger - metallothionein motif - the key male-specific subunit of the Male-Specific-Lethal dosage compensation complex that induces or stabilizes all other components
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\msl-2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\msl-2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0077571
3843
773
FBtr0077570
3710
773
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.8, 3.7 (northern blot)
4.0, 3.8 (northern blot)
4.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077260
84.9
773
4.59
FBpp0077259
84.9
773
4.59
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

773 aa isoforms: msl-2-PA, msl-2-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
773 (aa); 115 (kD observed)
773 (aa); 130 (kD observed); 85 (kD predicted)
769 (aa); 135, 105 (kD observed); 84 (kD predicted)
Comments
The binding of msl-2 protein to polytene chromosomes requires the other three MSL proteins (mle, msl-1, and msl-3 proteins).
The predicted msl-2 amino acid sequence is 769-773aa in length depending on strain variations.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the male-specific lethal (MSL) histone acetyltransferase complex at least composed of mof, msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3.
(UniProt, P50534)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\msl-2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001042522
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001042522
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001042522
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001042522
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
msl-2 protein binds to hundreds of sites along the length of the male X chromosome where it colocalizes with msl-1 protein. In addition, msl-2 protein is associated with 20-30 sites along the autosomes.
msl-2 protein was shown to bind to sites along the male X chromosome. The binding pattern is identical to that of msl-1 protein.
msl-2 protein associates with numerous sites along the length of the male X chromosome. The pattern of binding is indistinguishable from that of mle and msl-1 proteins.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\msl-2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 57 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of msl-2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of msl-2
Deletions and Duplications ( 17 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091904V6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503SJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0BM0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0BJK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0IAA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the male-specific lethal (MSL) histone acetyltransferase complex at least composed of mof, msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3.
    (UniProt, P50534 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-10
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:3,462,218..3,466,112 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    23F3-23F3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Madk00237 and P{lacW}Pdswk10101
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (8)
    Genomic Clones (6)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (61)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      The MSL complex does not mediate dosage compensation directly, but rather its activity overrides the high level of histone acetylation and counteracts the potential overexpression of X-linked genes to achieve the proper twofold up-regulation in males.
      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in chromosome misalignment on the metaphase spindle when assayed in S2 cells in the presence of Cdc27 dsRNA. This phenotype cannot be observed when the screen is performed without Cdc27 dsRNA.
      Sxl protein requires the obligatory cofactor Unr protein for 3'-UTR mediated translational repression of msl-2 in females. Sxl protein recruits Unr protein to the 3' UTR of msl-2 mRNA specifically in female cells.
      msl-2 protein controls male-specific transcription of roX1 and does not require any other MSL protein for this role.
      The MSL complex (including msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3) targets activated regions of te chromosome for chromatin remodelling.
      Gene products of the male specific lethal (msl) group of genes including msl-1, msl-2, msl-3, mle, and mof are associated with all female chromosomes at a low level but are sequestered to the X chromosome in males. There is evidence for the presence of nucleation sites for association of msl proteins with the X chromosome rather than individual gene binding sites.
      Gene products of the male specific lethal (msl) group of genes preferentially associate with the male X chromosome and may have a role in dosage compensation. This may be achieved by regulating an inverse dosage effect, which would be maintained on the male X and nullified on the autosomes.
      msl-2 mRNA translation is inhibited by the Sxl gene product. Sxl binding sites in both the 5' and 3' UTRs of msl-2 RNA cooperate in this translational repression.
      mof colocalises with the MSL complex on the X chromosome: a sequence of binding events results in the formation of the MSL complex on the X chromosome in males and in the targeting of mof to its presumed site of action.
      Sxl acts synergistically through sequences in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of msl-2 to mediate repression of msl-2 protein expression.
      Association of Sxl protein with multiple sites in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of msl-2 transcript represses its translation in females.
      msl-2 and msl-1 colocalise to a reproducible subset of their wild-type X chromosome sites in the absence of either mle or msl-3.
      Mutation analysis of the RING finger domain and second cysteine-rich motif confirms that the RING finger is essential for msl-2 function, while suggesting a less stringent requirement for an intact second motif.
      Male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins accumulate in a subregion of male nuclei (the X chromosome) beginning at late blastoderm stage. X chromosomal binding of the MSLs is observed throughout embryonic and larval development in both diploid and polytene tissues. His4 colocalises with the MSLs in embryos. Binding of the MSLs is interdependent in diploid cells and is prevented in female embryonic cells by Sxl.
      Sex- and chromosome-specific binding of the male-specific lethal (msl) proteins occurs in Drosophilid species spanning 4 genera. msl binding correlates with the evolution of the sex chromosomes.
      msl-1 requires msl-2 in order to become associated with the X chromosome.
      The products of msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 loci specifically associate with hundreds of sites along the X chromosome in males, but not in females. The binding of each of the four proteins requires the functional products from the other three. 2X3A individuals are mosaic for both Sxl expression and msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 binding to the X chromosome, with a perfect inverse correlation at the cellular level between Sxl expression and msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 X chromosome binding.
      The expression of msl-2 is sex-specifically regulated by Sxl.
      The msl-2 gene is needed for dosage compensation. The msl-2 protein binds specifically to the X chromosome, only in males.
      msl-2 is the key male-limited regulator of dosage compensation.
      msl-2 transcripts contain multiple Sxl binding sites and the protein is male specific. Sxl may negatively regulate translation of msl-2 in females.
      msl-2 gene product specifically interacts with the male X chromosome, as do mle, msl-1 and msl-3. msl-2 colocalises with msl-1 and antibodies directed against either msl-2 or msl-1 co-immunoprecipitate both proteins from male nuclear extracts.
      Elements needed for dosage compensation are localised to the X chromosome only after blastoderm and msl-dependent dosage compensation is not necessary during the first part of embryogenesis. This suggest the existance of an additional msl-independent dosage compensation mechanism; dosage compensation of run expression at blastoderm is not dependent on male specific lethal genes.
      The binding of mle, msl-1, msl-2 and His4 proteins to the X chromosome are interdependent from early embryogenesis.
      The msl-2 primary transcript may be the target of Sxl sex specific regulation and may play a role in male specific binding of mle, msl-3 and msl-1 to the X chromosome.
      Association of H4Ac16 protein with the male X chromosome requires wild type function of msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3.
      The four msl gene products interact to form a multiprotein complex.
      msl-2 negatively regulates the stability of msl-1 protein in males.
      The X chromosome binding of mle requires wild type msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3 functions.
      Sxlf1/Sxlfhv1 females that are also homozygous for mutants at msl-1, msl-2 or msl-3 develop as intersexes of the mosaic type.
      Mutants are defective for dosage compensation in males. Homozygous male embryos hatch but die as much as fourteen days later in larval or prepupal stages; females and heterozygous males survive; phenotype slightly more severe in sons of homozygous than of heterozygous mothers. Viability of two-X individuals that develop as phenotypic males (tra21) or intersexes (dsx1) is unaffected by msl-11, indicating that the one-X condition is required for msl-11 lethality.
      Pole cells from msl-21 male embryos are capable of undergoing normal spermatogenesis when transplanted into wild-type hosts.
      Mutants show no interaction with mle1 or msl-11.
      Females heterozygous for Sxlf1 and homozygous for msl-21 show signs of intersexual development. Effect is greater when the mother is homozygous for msl-21.
      Few homozygous msl-21 gynandromorphs survive; X0 patches small, with small bristles and mostly confined to abdomen.
      msl-2 is involved in dosage compensation in males.
      Mutants show decreased levels of X-linked-enzyme activities (G6PD, 6GPD, FUM) but not autosomally encoded enzymes (ADH, AO, GPDH, IDH) in homozygous msl-21 male larvae when compared with non-msl controls.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 48 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      MSL2
      (Lv et al., 2019, Lucchesi, 2018, Valsecchi et al., 2018, Ilik et al., 2017, Joshi and Meller, 2017, Schunter et al., 2017, Chlamydas et al., 2016, Cugusi et al., 2016, Zee et al., 2016, Cugusi et al., 2015, Ellison and Bachtrog, 2015, Keller and Akhtar, 2015, Li et al., 2015, Lindehell et al., 2015, Lucchesi and Kuroda, 2015, Ramírez et al., 2015, Chen et al., 2014, Comoglio and Paro, 2014, Dias et al., 2014, Ferrari et al., 2014, Figueiredo et al., 2014, McElroy et al., 2014, Alekseyenko et al., 2013, Ferrari et al., 2013, Ilik et al., 2013, Maenner et al., 2013, Sun et al., 2013, Thomae et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Alekseyenko et al., 2012, Conrad et al., 2012, Dunlap et al., 2012, Maenner et al., 2012, Prabhakaran and Kelley, 2012, Villa et al., 2012, Zheng et al., 2012, Larschan et al., 2011, Regnard et al., 2011, Stenberg and Larsson, 2011, Straub and Becker, 2011, Deng and Disteche, 2010, Fauth et al., 2010, Prestel et al., 2010, Schiemann et al., 2010, Schiemann et al., 2010, Gorchakov et al., 2009, Grimaud and Becker, 2009, Worringer et al., 2009, Bachtrog, 2008, Birchler et al., 2008, Spierer et al., 2008, Straub et al., 2008, Sural et al., 2008, Bai et al., 2007, Demakova et al., 2007, Gilfillan et al., 2007, Kind and Akhtar, 2007, Larschan et al., 2007, Mendjan and Akhtar, 2007, Park et al., 2007, Prasanth and Spector, 2007, Alekseyenko et al., 2006, Dahlsveen et al., 2006, Furuhashi et al., 2006, Gilfillan et al., 2006, Kotlikova et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Nusinow and Panning, 2005, Spierer et al., 2005, Straub et al., 2005, Straub et al., 2005, Straub et al., 2005, Bai et al., 2004, Deng and Meller, 2004, Gilfillan et al., 2004, Kelley, 2004, Lee et al., 2004, Morales et al., 2004, Oh et al., 2004, Andersen and Panning, 2003, Carrozza et al., 2003, Perrod and Gasser, 2003, Rattner and Meller, 2003, Wutz, 2003, Deng and Meller, 2002, Wang et al., 2001, Kelley and Kuroda, 2000, Pannuti and Lucchesi, 2000, Smith et al., 2000, Stuckenholz et al., 1999, Copps et al., 1998)
      km(2)A
      Name Synonyms
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0001317
      • FBgn0002852
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (423)