General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ple
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
pale
Annotation Symbol
CG10118
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0005626
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (1.14.16.2)
Gene Snapshot
Pale is a tyrosine hydroxylase, the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of dopamine (and eventually, melanin). Dopamine has critical roles in system development. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
TH, DTH, pale
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:6,713,356..6,719,525 [-]
Recombination map
3-17
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase family. (P18459)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O(2) = L-dopa + 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin (1.14.16.2)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
PAIRED DONOR OXIDOREDUCTASES, INCORPORATION OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN, PTERIDINE AS DONOR -
Paired donor oxidoreductases, incorporation of molecular oxygen, pteridine as donor include, dehydrogenases that catalyze an oxidation-reduction reaction in which hydrogen or electrons are transferred from reduced pteridine and one other donor, and one atom of oxygen is incorporated into one donor.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
(UniProt, P18459)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ple: pale
Homozygous lethal in embryo. Mutant embryos have unpigmented cuticle and head skeleton. Catecholamine levels reduced or absent (Budnick and White, 1987).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ple or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ple for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076956
2911
508
FBtr0076957
3124
579
FBtr0345585
3806
579
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.7, 3.2 (northern blot)
3.65, 3.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076665
57.9
508
6.37
FBpp0076666
66.0
579
4.81
FBpp0311654
66.0
579
4.81
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

579 aa isoforms: ple-PB, ple-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
579, 508 (aa)
508 (aa); 58 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ple using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (22 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001273, InterPro:IPR018301
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000158532
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000158597
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000158532
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000158532
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000158532
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
pcr
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.
ple-RB transcript isoform is expressed is ventral segmentally repeated rows of the epidermal cells that produce the denticle belts.
The 3.7 kb ple transcript is restricted to neural tissue. It is detected in adult head or brain tissue and from larval central nervous system using RT-PCR.
The 3.2 kb ple transcript, the shorter of the two type II ple isoforms, is epidermal, and is detected in larvae and adults using RT-PCR. Adult head, thorax, abdomen and larval epidermis express the short form of ple. A low level of expression is also seen in central nervous system tissue from larvae and adults. The 3.2 kb transcript is also detected in adult heads using Northern hybridization.
ple transcripts are detected in adult heads and in first instar larvae.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
distribution deduced from reporter (Gal4 UAS)
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ple is expressed in approximately 10 PPL1, 8 PPL2, 6 PPM1/2, 5 PPM3 and 4 PAL dopaminergic neurons.
ple protein is expressed in the dopaminergic clusters PAL (5 neurons), PAM (74 neurons), PPL1 (12 neurons), PPL2ab (6 neurons), PPM1 (1 neuron), PPM2 (10 neurons) and PPM3 (8 neurons). ple protein labels more neurons in the PAM cluster than Scer\GAL4ple.PF or Scer\GAL4Ddc.HL9.
Expression of ple is widely expressed throughout the mushroom body horizontal lobe, but is particularly intense at their distal tips.
ple-PA protein isoform is CNS-specific.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.F}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ellipsoid body

Comment: medium expression

eye

Comment: faint expression

Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-C'}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-C}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-D'}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-D}4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-D}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-F}1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-F}2
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-F}3
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ple-GAL4.TH-G}1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ple in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 13 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 30 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ple
Allele of ple
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ple
reporter construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905NX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502WG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0403 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X054P )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05MZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-17
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:6,713,356..6,719,525 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    65C3-65C3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0209402094 and P{lacW}l(3)L4060L4060
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (119)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: ple CG10118
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Identified as a gene with significant level of mRNA cycling as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated from adult heads harvested over six time points over the course of a day.
    Larvae treated with tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitors exhibit severely reduced dopamine levels. Larvae are negatively phototactic, demonstrate a strong aversion to salt, are strongly attracted to heptanol and locomotor and feeding abilities are normal. However larvae do become akinetic and eventually die. Some do survive to pupariation and adults that eclose exhibit normal cuticle formation and cuticle. Reduced levels of dopamine affect adult fertility, ovarian development is affected.
    A segment of ple from -1kb to +7kb shows limited rescue of ple mutants, FBrf0058913. The addition of 3.5kb 5' flanking ple DNA allows rescue to pupation depending on the site of integration but very limited rescue to adulthood.
    ple is encoded via alternatively spliced exons to generate the major (Type II) and minor (Type I) isoforms. Alternative RNA processing generates 3 types of RNA that differ in the length of the 3' untranslated region, IL, IIS and IIL. IL is specifically expressed in the CNS and IIS is the hypoderm.
    ple encodes the structural gene for tyrosine hydroxylase.
    ple gene product catalyses the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. An 8kb genomic fragment contains the necessary temporal and spatial elements for correct expression.
    ple mutants display unpigmented cuticle and head skeleton.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 52 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    TH
    (Martinez-Perez et al., 2018, Pu et al., 2018, Xie et al., 2018, Asahina, 2017, Chen et al., 2017, Figueira et al., 2017, Hartenstein et al., 2017, Liu et al., 2017, Mohandas et al., 2017, Cassar et al., 2015, Pathak et al., 2015, Phan et al., 2015, Shankar et al., 2015, Shih et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Angeles et al., 2014, Bou Dib et al., 2014, Galili et al., 2014, Martín-Peña et al., 2014, Navarro et al., 2014, Poddighe et al., 2014, Tufi et al., 2014, Vogt et al., 2014, Yamamoto and Seto, 2014, Alekseyenko et al., 2013, Argue et al., 2013, Chambers et al., 2013, Costa et al., 2013, Esposito et al., 2013, Hindle et al., 2013, Karpova et al., 2013, Lee, 2013, Macleod et al., 2013, Riemensperger et al., 2013, Robinson and Atkinson, 2013, St Laurent et al., 2013, Takahashi, 2013, Vos et al., 2013, Aso et al., 2012, Burke et al., 2012, Humphrey et al., 2012, Islam et al., 2012, Kahsai et al., 2012, Keene and Masek, 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Marella et al., 2012, Ng et al., 2012, Zitserman et al., 2012, Zwarts et al., 2012, Blanco et al., 2011, Chiang et al., 2011, Kahsai and Winther, 2011, Liu et al., 2011, Riemensperger et al., 2011, Séjourné et al., 2011, Sekine et al., 2011, Shih and Chiang, 2011, Sorribes et al., 2011, Tan et al., 2011, Tio et al., 2011, Wakabayashi-Ito et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Alekseyenko et al., 2010, Daubert et al., 2010, Gehrke et al., 2010, Inamdar et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Kong et al., 2010, Kuklinski et al., 2010, Lin et al., 2010, Saini et al., 2010, van Swinderen and Brembs, 2010, White et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2009, Claridge-Chang et al., 2009, Gruntenko et al., 2009, Krashes et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Makos et al., 2009, Mao and Davis, 2009, Ng et al., 2009, Palgi et al., 2009, Selcho et al., 2009, Bowling et al., 2008, Imai et al., 2008, Johard et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Nässel et al., 2008, Vömel and Wegener, 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Wright and O'Donnell, 2008, Davis et al., 2007, Draper et al., 2007, Pendleton et al., 2007, Udolph et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Zhang et al., 2007, Cooper et al., 2006, Hamasaka and Nassel, 2006, Mao and Davis, 2006, Park et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Yang et al., 2006, Auluck et al., 2005, Cha et al., 2005, Melcher and Pankratz, 2005, Meulener et al., 2005, Park et al., 2005, Coulom and Birman, 2004, Davis et al., 2004, Huang et al., 2003, Suster et al., 2003, Wang et al., 2003, Yang et al., 2003, Auluck et al., 2002, Wang et al., 2002, Huang et al., 2001, Burton et al., 2000, Chen et al., 2000, Dawson, 2000, Krishnakumar et al., 2000, Neckameyer et al., 2000, O'Grady and DeSalle, 2000, van Meyel et al., 2000, Xu et al., 2000, Stathakis et al., 1999, True et al., 1999, True and Carroll, 1998, Birman et al., 1997, Thor and Thomas, 1997, Birman et al., 1995, Birman and Hirsh, 1993, Neckameyer, 1993.12.1)
    dTH65B
    Name Synonyms
    Tyrosine-3-hydroxylase
    Tyrosone hydroxylase
    XBB70 Group VII
    tyrosine hydrodroxylase
    tyrosine hydroxylase
    (Asahina, 2017, Zhang et al., 2015, Dalui and Bhattacharyya, 2014, Martín-Peña et al., 2014, Navarro et al., 2014, Poddighe et al., 2014, Argue et al., 2013, Caldwell et al., 2013, Chambers et al., 2013, Hwang et al., 2013, St Laurent et al., 2013, Takahashi, 2013, Vos et al., 2013, Humphrey et al., 2012, Neckameyer and Bhatt, 2012, Neely et al., 2012, Zitserman et al., 2012, Anh et al., 2011, Ferdousy et al., 2011, Kahsai and Winther, 2011, Liu et al., 2011, Riedel et al., 2011, Riemensperger et al., 2011, Séjourné et al., 2011, Seugnet et al., 2011, Tan et al., 2011, Wakabayashi-Ito et al., 2011, Gehrke et al., 2010, Hirsh et al., 2010, Kuklinski et al., 2010, Lin et al., 2010, White et al., 2010, Al-Anzi et al., 2009, Chen et al., 2009, Claridge-Chang et al., 2009, Gruntenko et al., 2009, Krashes et al., 2009, Makos et al., 2009, Mao and Davis, 2009, Ng et al., 2009, Palgi et al., 2009, Seugnet et al., 2009, Bowling et al., 2008, Ferdousy et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Nässel et al., 2008, Ponti et al., 2008, Vömel and Wegener, 2008, Wright and O'Donnell, 2008, Draper et al., 2007, Juarez et al., 2007, Park et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Hamasaka and Nassel, 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Neckameyer et al., 2005, Coulom and Birman, 2004, Perez and Hastings, 2004, Wolf and Heberlein, 2003, Wittmann et al., 2001, Feany and Bender, 2000, Krishnakumar et al., 2000, Neckameyer et al., 2000, Neckameyer et al., 2000, Burton and O'Donnell, 1999, Neckameyer, 1998, Neckameyer et al., 1998, Neckameyer, 1997)
    tyrosine-hydroxylase
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0003109
    • FBgn0003692
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    References (385)