General Information
Symbol
Dmel\spi
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
spitz
Annotation Symbol
CG10334
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0005672
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Spitz (Spi) is the cardinal Egfr ligand that is produced as a transmembrane precursor and processed by S and rho. Spi roles include growth regulation, cell survival and developmental patterning. [Date last reviewed: 2017-07-20]
Also Known As
Spitz, sSpi, l(2)s3547, l(2)01068, s-spi
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:19,567,900..19,577,315 [-]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
EGFR AGONISTS -
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) agonists are secreted ligands that activate the Egfr receptor tyrosine kinase.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Ligand for the EGF receptor (Gurken). Involved in a number of unrelated developmental choices, for example, dorsal-ventral axis formation, glial migration, sensory organ determination, and muscle development. It is required for photoreceptor determination.
(UniProt, Q01083)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
spi: spitz
Embryonic lethal. Normal allele required for normal development of blastoderm cells just lateral to the ventral mesodermal precursors. Denticle bands narrower than normal; first row often missing; reversal of polarity between anterior and posterior rows not seen; irregular fusion in midline of adjacent dentical bands. Keilin's organs missing or strongly reduced. Labrum, antennal-maxillary complex and labial sense organ reduced in size; right and left halves of head skeleton fused to produce pointed appearance. Tail region normal. Right and left halves of ventral ganglia of the central nervous system closer together than normal resulting in shorter commissures. The cells in the CNS that stain with anti-eve+ antibodies are closer together in spi than in wild type. spi+ required in the female germ line; spi pole cells transplanted into normal embryos produce no progeny.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\spi or the JBrowse view of Dmel\spi for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081268
1653
234
FBtr0081269
1634
234
FBtr0081270
1438
234
FBtr0081267
1457
234
FBtr0100597
1576
234
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.5, 2.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080809
26.4
234
7.54
FBpp0080810
26.4
234
7.54
FBpp0080811
26.4
234
7.54
FBpp0080808
26.4
234
7.54
FBpp0100054
26.4
234
7.54
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

234 aa isoforms: spi-PA, spi-PB, spi-PE, spi-PF, spi-PG
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
230 (aa); 26 (kD)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Star via the lumenal domain.
(UniProt, Q01083)
Post Translational Modification
Proteolytic processing by Rhomboid occurs in the Golgi. Cleavage takes place within the transmembrane domain close to residue 144 and the active growth factor is released. N-glycosylated and O-glycosylated.
(UniProt, Q01083)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\spi using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (23 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (23 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:abd-A; FB:FBgn0000014
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
spi transcript is expressed in the adult midgut precursor cells.
spi transcripts are expressed throughout development with a peak in mid-embryogenesis. In situ hybridizations show that spi is expressed ubiquitously in all embryonic tissues, with enrichment in the procephalic region, ventral midline, mesodermal layers, and PNS.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expression of spi is highest in cone cells and bristle organules (interommatidial bristle precursors), and lower in the primary pigment cells.
The spi protein is expressed ubiquitously in embryos with slight enrichment in the mesoderm and the ventral midline.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\spi in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 51 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of spi
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
        Other relevant insertions
        insertion of mobile activating element
        Name
        Expression Data
        miscellaneous insertions
        Transgenic Constructs ( 41 )
        For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
        Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of spi
        Allele of spi
        Mutagen
        Associated Transgenic Construct
        Stocks
        Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of spi
        GAL4 construct
        Name
        Expression Data
        Deletions and Duplications ( 25 )
        Summary of Phenotypes
        For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
        Lethality
        Allele
        Sterility
        Allele
        Other Phenotypes
        Allele
        Phenotype manifest in
        Allele
        anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
        anterior fascicle & synapse | supernumerary, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
        bract & leg | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
        embryonic/first instar larval cuticle & denticle, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E
        lamina & neuron
        lamina & neuron, with Scer\GAL4hs.PB
        larval sense organ & antennal segment
        larval sense organ & maxillary segment
        mesothoracic tarsal segment 1 & bract | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
        retina & basal lamina
        sensory neuron & axon & embryo
        taste bristle & leg | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4Dll-md23
        taste bristle & leg | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
        Orthologs
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
         
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
        1 of 13
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 13
        Yes
        Yes
        Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
        1 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
        1 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190G6I )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        AAA Syntenic Ortholog
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Drosophila melanogaster
        fruit fly
        Drosophila suzukii
        Spotted wing Drosophila
        Drosophila simulans
        Drosophila sechellia
        Drosophila erecta
        Drosophila yakuba
        Drosophila ananassae
        Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
        Drosophila persimilis
        Drosophila willistoni
        Drosophila virilis
        Drosophila mojavensis
        Drosophila grimshawi
        Drosophila grimshawi
        Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150FG7 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Glossina morsitans
        Tsetse fly
        Lucilia cuprina
        Australian sheep blowfly
        Mayetiola destructor
        Hessian fly
        Aedes aegypti
        Yellow fever mosquito
        Anopheles gambiae
        Malaria mosquito
        Anopheles gambiae
        Malaria mosquito
        Culex quinquefasciatus
        Southern house mosquito
        Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0JAH )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis mellifera
        Western honey bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0KPI )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Strigamia maritima
        European centipede
        Ixodes scapularis
        Black-legged tick
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
        Human Disease Model Data
        FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
        Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
        Download
        Models ( 1 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        inferred from mutant phenotype
        Interactions ( 4 )
        Comments ( 0 )
         
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
        Homo sapiens (Human)
        Gene name
        Score
        OMIM
        OMIM Phenotype
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
        Select Layout:
        Legend:
        Protein
        RNA
        Selected Interactor(s)
        Interactions Browser

        Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
        RNA-RNA
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        protein-protein
        Interacting group
        Assay
        References
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        suppressible
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        enhanceable
        suppressible
        suppressible
        suppressible
        External Data
        Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
        Interacts with Star via the lumenal domain.
        (UniProt, Q01083 )
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Pathways
        Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
        Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
        The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is used multiple times during development (FBrf0190321). It is activated by the binding of a secreted ligand to the receptor tyrosine kinase Egfr and acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0190321 and FBrf0221727).
        External Data
        Linkouts
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        2L
        Recombination map
        2-54
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        2L:19,567,900..19,577,315 [-]
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        37F2-37F2
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP623&P{PZ}spi01068 and P{lacW}l(2)k10239k10239
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        37F1-37F2
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        38A-38A
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        37F-38A
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Left of (cM)
        Right of (cM)
        Notes
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (29)
        Genomic Clones (13)
         

        Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

        cDNA Clones (189)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequences
        BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Source for merge of: spi anon-WO0118547.158
        Additional comments
        Source for merge of spi anon-WO0118547.158 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
        Other Comments
        Identified as a candidate gene for hypoxia-specific selection (via an experimental evolution paradigm) that is also differentially expressed between control and hypoxia-adapted larvae.
        spi is not required for patterning of the dorsal anterior follicular epithelium.
        S protein appears to traffic the spi precursor while cycling between the endoplasmic reticulum and late endosomes in S[[2]]R[+] cells.
        spi protein is palimtoylated. Palmitoylation of spi promotes membrane association, increasing its activity but reducing its range.
        spi is necessary for axon contact dependent inhibition of W dependent cell death of midline glial cells.
        spi/Egfr signalling via the Ras/MAPK pathway mediates the induction of bract cell fate in the leg.
        Area matching Drosophila EST AA201448. This EST forms a 856bp contig with ESTs AA438721 and AA247046.
        spi interacts directly with S.
        rho protein appears to be an intramembrane serine protease that directly cleaves spi protein. The putative rho active site is within the membrane bilayer and the spi cleavage site is within its transmembrane domain.
        Two EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.
        hh and spi bring about the concerted assembly of ommatidial and synaptic cartridge units, imposing the "neurocrystalline" order of the compound eye onto the post-synaptic target field. spi activity is necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of cartridge neurons in the lamina.
        EGF domain swapping experiments of vn, spi and argos demonstrate that the EGF domain is the key determinant that gives Egfr inhibitors and activators their distinct properties.
        spi is required in follicle cells for dorsal-anterior patterning of the egg.
        When spi is removed from the follicle cells using clonal analysis the dorsal appendages fuse. The phenotype resembles that caused by a reduction in Egfr signalling.
        Epistasis tests with known dorsal/ventral patterning genes suggests that CrebA encodes a transcription factor near the end of both the dpp and spi signalling cascades to translate the corresponding extracellular signals into changes in gene expression.
        In vivo culture of mutant discs from genotypes that are normally embryonic lethal demonstrates spi has no role in wing disc growth.
        spi acts in photoreceptor recruitment in the developing retina.
        The Egfr receptor pathway is activated by localized processing of the ligand spi in the tracheal placodes.
        The function of spi, rho and S appears to be non-autonomous; expression of the precursor only in the midline is sufficient for patterning the ventral ectoderm.
        Facilitating the expression of spi, rho and S is the only sim-dependent contribution of the midline to patterning the ventral ectoderm, since the mutant sim ectodermal defects can be overcome by expression of secreted spi in the ectoderm. These results suggest a mechanism for generating a graded distribution of secreted spi, which may subsequently give rise to graded activation of Egfr in the ectoderm.
        The autosomal "FLP-DFS" technique (using the P{ovoD1-18} P{FRT(whs)} P{hsFLP} chromosomes) has been used to study the zygotic lethal mutation.
        Mutations of spi, the putative ligand for Egfr in longitudinal vein formation, have no effect on penetrance of ectopic crossveins in chicgdh-5/EgfrE1 heterozygotes.
        trh and the spi group of genes probably act in two separate pathways that are both necessary for proper salivary duct development.
        In spi mutants the pre-duct cells are converted to a pre-gland fate.
        In salivary gland development the activity of fkh prevents the expression of duct-specific cells, and in preduct cells the spi group signalling pathway prevents the expression of gland specific markers. fkh is repressed by spi group signalling, which is strongest in the most ventral cells of the epidermis.
        The spi product triggers the Egfr signaling cascade. Graded activation of the Egfr pathway may normally give rise to a repertoire of discrete cell fates in the ventral ectoderm and graded distribution of spi may be responsible for the graded activation. The rho and S products may act as modulators of Egfr signaling. Epistatic relationships suggest that rho and S may normally facilitate processing of the spi precursor.
        spi is required for photoreceptor determination; mutations modify the phenotype caused by ectopic expression of rho in the eye. Mosaic analysis suggest spi produces a diffusible signal during ommatidial development. Other members of the spi group and Egfr also interact with rho, in a pattern that suggests a model in which rho can act as a mediator of a ligand-receptor interaction between spi and Egfr in the developing eye.
        Clonal analysis demonstrates spi is required in the founding photoreceptor cells.
        Required for normal development of blastoderm cells just lateral to the ventral mesodermal precursors. spi+ required in the female germ line; spi- pole cells transplanted into normal embryos produce no progeny.
        Embryonic lethal. Denticle bands narrower than normal; first row often missing; reversal of polarity between anterior and posterior rows not seen; irregular fusion in midline of adjacent dentical bands. Keilin's organs missing or strongly reduced. Labrum, antennal-maxillary complex and labial sense organ reduced in size; right and left halves of head skeleton fused to produce pointed appearance. Tail region normal. Right and left halves of ventral ganglia of the central nervous system closer together than normal resulting in shorter commissures. The cells in the CNS that stain with anti-eve+ antibodies are closer together in spi- than in wild type.
        spi gene product is required for the proper development of the ventralmost cuticle and the CNS midline.
        spi encodes a ligand that functionally interacts with the products of rho and possibly Egfr.
        rho, pnt, S and spi all function in the formation of the same chordotonal organs.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 75 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        anon-WO0118547.158
        l(2)37Fa
        spi
        (Kittelmann et al., 2018, Schwarz et al., 2018, Chabu et al., 2017, Kim et al., 2017, Louradour et al., 2017, Ozasa et al., 2017, Park et al., 2017, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Dubois et al., 2016, Jha et al., 2016, Jussen et al., 2016, Malartre, 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Grotewiel and Bettinger, 2015, Kallsen et al., 2015, Kavi et al., 2015, Kim et al., 2015, Martín-Bermudo et al., 2015, Verhulst and van de Zande, 2015, Austin et al., 2014, Kux and Pitsouli, 2014, Li et al., 2014, Luck et al., 2014, Zschätzsch et al., 2014, Handler et al., 2013, Handler et al., 2013, Hudson et al., 2013, Markstein, 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Shen et al., 2013, Shwartz et al., 2013, Walker et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Butchar et al., 2012, Foronda et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Maeng et al., 2012, Murray et al., 2012, Peng et al., 2012, Reid et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Zoller and Schulz, 2012, Dworkin et al., 2011, Hwang and Rulifson, 2011, Jiang et al., 2011, Karim and Moore, 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Murillo-Maldonado et al., 2011, Neumüller et al., 2011, Park et al., 2011, Roy et al., 2011, Sinenko et al., 2011, Sinenko et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Gutzwiller et al., 2010, Kitadate and Kobayashi, 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Morozova et al., 2010, Rousso et al., 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Yogev et al., 2010, Yu et al., 2010, Corl et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Fetting et al., 2009, Huh et al., 2009, Jiang and Edgar, 2009, Lachance et al., 2009, Maybeck and Röper, 2009, Oishi et al., 2009, Wheeler et al., 2009, Yan et al., 2009, Estes et al., 2008, Li-Kroeger et al., 2008, Escudero et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Maeda et al., 2007, Magalhaes et al., 2007, Montrasio et al., 2007, Nishimura et al., 2007, Samsonova et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Brodu and Casanova, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson, 2006, Dworkin and Gibson., 2006, Liu et al., 2006, McDonald et al., 2006, Mirkovic and Mlodzik, 2006, Miura et al., 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Oishi et al., 2006, Galindo et al., 2005, Laviolette et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Brodu et al., 2004, Schlesinger et al., 2004, Chang et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001, Lee et al., 1999)
        Name Synonyms
        epidermal growth factor protein
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0002048
        • FBgn0003474
        • FBgn0010472
        • FBgn0010690
        • FBgn0062206
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
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        References (660)