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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dac
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
dachshund
Annotation Symbol
CG4952
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0005677
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
dachshund (dac) encodes a transcriptional cofactor that physically interacts with several other retinal determination proteins, including those encoded by eya and so, and regulates eye, leg, gonad, and brain development. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13]
Also Known As

dachsund, dacshund, l(2)36Ae, BG:DS02780.3 , Dach

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:16,466,512..16,485,998 [-]
Recombination map

2-52

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:16466512..16485998
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER DNA BINDING DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The Other DNA binding domain transcription factors group is a collection of DNA-binding transcription factors that do not fit into any of the other major domain-based transcription factor groups.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\dac or the JBrowse view of Dmel\dac for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0080875
4955
1072
FBtr0080876
4982
1081
FBtr0080877
4934
1065
FBtr0080878
4961
1074
FBtr0100399
4955
1072
FBtr0100400
4928
1063
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

5 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080432
112.6
1072
7.09
FBpp0080433
113.7
1081
7.14
FBpp0080434
111.8
1065
7.04
FBpp0080435
112.8
1074
7.09
FBpp0099813
112.7
1072
7.09
FBpp0099814
111.6
1063
7.04
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

1081, 1074, 1072, 1065 (aa)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\dac using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (18 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VBW6
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VBW9
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000971376
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000971376
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data

dac is transcribed mainly in the central and posterior regions of the protocerebral neurectoderm.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

dac-protein is expressed in the lamina and lobula plate anlage as well as in distal cells of the larval optic anlage.

There is no difference in the expression pattern of dac between the male and female prothoracic leg discs.

When it is first expressed in the prospective tarsus, dac abuts the B-H1 expression domain distally. Just before the central fold forms, a gap region devoid of either apears. By the prepupal stage, dac is expressed strongly in the presumptive metatarsus and moderately in presumptive tarsal segment 2.

dac protein is expressed in a subset of neurons of the medulla anlage in third instar larva. In adults, dac is expressed in the medulla neurons Tm9, Dm8a and Dm8b.

dac is expressed in CCAP-EN neurons but not in the CCAP-IN neurons.

dac expression partially overlaps with disco gene expression in leg discs.

dac protein is not detected in the male germline.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - v2; protocerebrum - av1, cd1, cd2, cd4, cd6, cd8, cd9, cd14, cv7, cv9, pd1, pd8, pd11

dac protein is expressed at the morphogenetic furrow of the eye disc, in the pro-proneural cells immediately anterior the morphogenetic furrow, and in the cells immediately posterior the morphogenetic furrow. The dac protein expression pattern is non-overlapping with that of hth.

dac protein is observed in mushroom body nuclei at 48, 72, and 96 hours after puparium formation. It is also evident in the area of the mushroom bodies in larvae at all stages and in embryos beginning at around stage 9. In adults, dac protein expression occurs in mushroom body neurons that are 8-10 hours old but not in neuroblasts, ganglion mother cells, or newly born neurons.

dac is expressed in a cluster of approximately 10-12 cells beginning at stage 9 of embryogenesis, which correspond to the mushroom body neuroblasts. Expression remains in the mushroom body ectoderm and mushroom body neuroblasts throughout embryogenesis. Expression expands to include a cluster of cells laterally adjacent to the mushroom body neuroectoderm, referred to as the 'para-MB neurectoderm'. At later stages of embryogenesis, expression is found in scattered groups of neurons in both the ventral nerve cord and brain, and other embryonic tissue. By stage 16 dac positive cells become incorporated into the brain. Levels of expression are noted to decline by embryogenesis stage 13.

dac protein is expressed in imaginal discs in larvae. In the eye disc, it is expressed strongly in the unpatterned epithelium preceding the morphogenetic furrow. Posterior to the furrow, dac protein is expressed primarily in R1, R6, and R7 as well as in cone cells. dac protein is expressed only in the part of the eye disc that will become the retina. In leg discs, it is expressed in a ring pattern from a very early stage. It is also expressed in the third antennal disc segment and in wing discs. dac protein is also expressed in the embryonic CNS and in the optic lobe of the larval brain.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}dacp7d23
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}dacP
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\dac in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 43 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 35 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of dac
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of dac
Deletions and Duplications ( 60 )
Not disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
eye | ectopic & adult head, with Scer\GAL4GMR.long
eye | ectopic & female genitalia, with Scer\GAL47B
prothoracic leg & sex comb
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903KU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915052Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03VJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0J8D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G06DV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map

    2-52

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:16,466,512..16,485,998 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    36A1-36A2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}fzyEP1028&P{lacW}mRpL4k14608 and P{PZ}dacP
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    36A1-36A2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    35F-36A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (21)
    Genomic Clones (18)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (54)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: dac CG4952

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      dac is necessary to upregulate and maintain Egfr expression in lamina neurons.

      The 5' eye enhancer region located in intron 8 is primarily regulated by ey, although this regulation also requires eya and so. By contrast, the 3' eye enhancer is regulated by a combination of eya, so and dpp signaling, but is not directly dependent upon ey.

      dac is essential for proper joint formation between antennal segment 5 and the arista.

      dac plays sex-specific roles in the development of the genitalia.

      dac has a function in the structural development of the mushroom body.

      dac is required autonomously within the mushroom body (MB) for three major aspects of MB cell differentiation; it is required for MB neurites to respect their normal neuropil borders, for axons to arrange themselves properly within the horizontal (β, β' and γ) lobes and for MB axons to be able to fill the α lobe neuropil properly.

      ey and dac do not seem to regulate each other's expression in the developing mushroom body.

      ey and dac may have a role in axon pathway selection during embryogenesis.

      dac and eya act synergistically to induce ectopic retinal development and positively regulate the expression of each other.

      Targeted expression of dac is sufficient to direct ectopic retinal development in a variety of tissues, including the adult head, thorax and legs. dac and ey induce the expression of each other and dac is required for ectopic retinal development driven by ey misexpression. Results suggest dac and ey are likely to function together in the control of retinal cell-fate specification at the early stages of eye development.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      Some mutant alleles produce escapers with crippled legs (hence the name "dachshund").

      The gene is named "dachshund" after the mutant phenotype; mutant flies have short, little legs.

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 74 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Dac
      (Chai et al., 2019, Sato et al., 2019, Davis and Rebay, 2018, Richardson and Portela, 2018, Tran et al., 2018, Davis and Rebay, 2017, Davis and Rebay, 2017, Apitz and Salecker, 2016, Chen et al., 2016, Jin and Mardon, 2016, Jin et al., 2016, Kraft et al., 2016, Li et al., 2016, Urbach et al., 2016, Yasugi and Nishimura, 2016, Apitz and Salecker, 2015, Hall and Verheyen, 2015, Oliveira et al., 2014, Atkins et al., 2013, Da Ros et al., 2013, Kannan and Fridell, 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Ruan et al., 2013, Sato et al., 2013, Zhou and Luo, 2013, Dearborn et al., 2012, Oyallon et al., 2012, Plavicki et al., 2012, Ulvklo et al., 2012, Wang and Sun, 2012, Baker and Firth, 2011, Hadjieconomou et al., 2011, Hasegawa et al., 2011, Hwang and Rulifson, 2011, Kawamori et al., 2011, Lynch and Wagner, 2011, Olson et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Estella and Mann, 2010, Kosmidis et al., 2010, Sugie et al., 2010, Yasugi et al., 2010, Yogev et al., 2010, Baumgardt et al., 2009, Kim et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Lin et al., 2009, McKay et al., 2009, Peng et al., 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Brás-Pereira and Casares, 2008, Nishimura et al., 2008, Schuldiner et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Yasugi et al., 2008, Bannina and Kopp, 2007, Barrio et al., 2007, Baumgardt et al., 2007, Jemc and Rebay, 2007, Mishra and Nigam, 2007, Chu et al., 2006, Ekas et al., 2006, Kozu et al., 2006, Babu et al., 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Dominguez et al., 2004, Kaminker et al., 2002, Gorfinkiel et al., 1999)
      dac
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      l(2)rK364
      spn
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      daschund
      spinosus
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