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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Parp
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase
Annotation Symbol
CG40411
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010247
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
NAD(+) ADP-ribosyltransferase (2.4.2.30)
Gene Snapshot
Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) encodes a nuclear enzyme associated with chromatin. It modifies acceptor proteins through assembly of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers. The poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating pathway regulates many nuclear functions, including DNA-repair, chromatin structure, and transcription initiation, as well as pre-mRNA fate via alternative splicing and translation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26]
Also Known As

PARP-1, PARP1

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:3,461,351..3,587,054 [-]
Recombination map

3-47.1

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:3461351..3587054
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
NAD(+) + (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n)-acceptor = nicotinamide + (ADP-D- ribosyl)(n+1)-acceptor (2.4.2.30)
Predictions / Assertions
NAD(+) + (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n)-acceptor = nicotinamide + (ADP-D- ribosyl)(n+1)-acceptor (2.4.2.30)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ADP-RIBOSYLTRANSFERASES -
ADP-ribosyltransferases catalyze the addition of single or multiple ADP-ribose moieties from NAD+ donor to the substrates forming mono ADP-ribosylation or poly ADP-ribosylation. (Adapted from PMID:25938242).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the increased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Poly-ADP-ribosyltransferase that mediates poly-ADP-ribosylation of proteins and plays a key role in DNA repair. Mainly mediates glutamate and aspartate ADP-ribosylation of target proteins: the ADP-D-ribosyl group of NAD(+) is transferred to the acceptor carboxyl group of glutamate and aspartate residues and further ADP-ribosyl groups are transferred to the 2'-position of the terminal adenosine moiety, building up a polymer with an average chain length of 20-30 units. Isoform e: Plays a fundamental role in organizing chromatin on a global scale. Autoregulates Parp transcription by influencing the chromatin structure of its heterochromatic environment.
(UniProt, P35875)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

enzyme that attaches ADP-ribose moiety to histone - promotes chromatin silencing by regulating the localization and function of SIR2

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Parp or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Parp for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.54

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.40

Gene model reviewed during 6.01

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0113885
3112
994
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0112608
113.8
994
8.76
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

994 (aa); 113 (kD)

Comments

A smaller Parp protein which is generated from an alternatively spliced mRNA lacks the auto-modification domain.

Authors postulate that the Parp protein is inactive as a monomer. Parp protein may dimerize through the leucine repeats to make the active form or may form heterodimers with and polyADP-ribosylate other leucine zipper proteins.

External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Parp using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:His2A; FB:FBgn0001196
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:His2B; FB:FBgn0001198
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:His3; FB:FBgn0001199
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:His4; FB:FBgn0001200
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001510, InterPro:IPR008288
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR008288
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000396992
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000396992
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001510, InterPro:IPR008288
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000396992
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000396992
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000396992
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000396992
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Parp in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 4 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 26 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Parp
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Parp
Deletions and Duplications ( 11 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
actin filament & embryonic epidermis | conditional ts
actin filament & retina
adult abdomen & cuticle, with Scer\GAL4arm.PS
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902D5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501S2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W020O )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01Y6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G13H1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
    Positive regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the increased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-47.1

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:3,461,351..3,587,054 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    81F-81F
    Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0102327) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0102327)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    81F-81F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Cytology confirmed by PCR.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (8)
    Genomic Clones (36)
    cDNA Clones (77)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Parp BEST:LD21673

    Source for merge of: Parp CG17696 CG17685

    Source for merge of: Parp CG17696

    Source for merge of: CG17718, CG17696, CG17685

    Additional comments

    Annotations CG17718, CG17696 and CG17685 merged as CG40411 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

    Other Comments

    Sequence of transcript(s) changed in r6 genomic release relative to r5 release.

    Parp is required to produce normal-sized polytene chromosome puffs and normal amounts of Hsp70 protein after heat exposure.

    Nucleoli fail to form in Parp mutants, heterochromatic (but not euchromatic) sequences become sensitive to micrococcal nuclease and the transcript levels of the copia retrotransposon are elevated more than 50-fold.

    Overexpression of Parp disrupts the organisation of the F-actin cytoskeleton, resulting in aberrant cell and tissue morphology.

    The genomic organisation of the Parp locus and its expression pattern during development have been analysed.

    PARP protein is processed in S2 cells treated with etoposide to induce apoptosis.

    Amino acid sequence of Parp cDNA has been compared between different species with an emphasis on conservation of functional elements and expression during development.

    Full length cDNA clones for Drosophila poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase isolated using a probe made by PCR with primers deduced from sequence in mammal, chicken, fish and amphibian species.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 67 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (31)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BEST:LD21673
    LD21673.3prime
    Name Synonyms
    (Poly (ADP-ribose) polymeras
    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
    Poly ADP-ribose (ADPr) polymerase 1
    Poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1
    Poly(ADP)-Ribose Polymerase
    Poly(ADP-)Ribose Polymerase
    Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase
    Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase
    poly ADP ribose polymerase
    poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase
    poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0039975
    • FBgn0039998
    • FBgn0046268
    • FBgn0058411
    • FBan0040411
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (131)