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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Taf4
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
TBP-associated factor 4
Annotation Symbol
CG5444
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010280
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
TBP-associated factor 4 (Taf4) encodes a protein that forms part of the multisubunit basal transcription factor TFIIID. It is important in maintaining TFIIID stability for activator dependent transcription. It forms a histone-like pair with the product of Taf12. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

dTAFII110, TAFII110, TAF110, TAFII110, TFIID

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:16,113,212..16,121,651 [+]
Recombination map

3-44

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:16113212..16121651
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the TAF4 family. (P47825)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR II D -
The general transcription factor complex Transcription factor II D (TFIID) plays an important role in recruiting the transcription machinery to core promoters. TFIID is a complex composed of TBP and several TBP-associated factors. (Adapted from FBrf0125116 and FBrf0156065).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
TFIID is a multimeric protein complex that plays a central role in mediating promoter responses to various activators and repressors. May function as a coactivator by serving as a site of protein-protein contact between activators like Sp1 (or btd) and TFIID complex.
(UniProt, P47825)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
9
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Taf4 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Taf4 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075448
4916
921
FBtr0075449
4574
921
FBtr0075450
4423
851
FBtr0075451
4166
851
FBtr0114589
5134
1088
FBtr0301911
4622
921
FBtr0333290
4756
962
FBtr0333291
5011
1047
FBtr0345951
4226
921
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.615 (longest cDNA)

5.0 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075205
99.3
921
10.64
FBpp0075206
99.3
921
10.64
FBpp0075207
92.1
851
10.59
FBpp0089259
92.1
851
10.59
FBpp0113081
117.2
1088
10.86
FBpp0291125
99.3
921
10.64
FBpp0305485
103.5
962
10.68
FBpp0305486
113.1
1047
10.83
FBpp0311865
99.3
921
10.64
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

921 aa isoforms: Taf4-PA, Taf4-PB, Taf4-PF, Taf4-PI
851 aa isoforms: Taf4-PC, Taf4-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

921 (aa); 99.4 (kD)

921 (aa); 110 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Belongs to the TFIID complex which is composed of TATA binding protein (Tbp) and a number of TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Interacts with TFIIA-L when in complex with Tbp. Interacts with Taf1, Taf5, Taf11 and Taf12.

(UniProt, P47825)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Taf4 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000388601
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR009072
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000388601
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P51123
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P51123
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P51123
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000388601
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:11537
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000004607
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Taf6; FB:FBgn0010417
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P51123
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:11537
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000004607
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000388601
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Taf6; FB:FBgn0010417
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P51123
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Taf4 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 19 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Taf4
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Taf4
Deletions and Duplications ( 12 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190382 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150359 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02ML )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02JT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
3 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Belongs to the TFIID complex which is composed of TATA binding protein (Tbp) and a number of TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Interacts with TFIIA-L when in complex with Tbp. Interacts with Taf1, Taf5, Taf11 and Taf12.
    (UniProt, P47825 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-44

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:16,113,212..16,121,651 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    72D7-72D8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}thj5C8&P{PZ}Mbs03802 and P{lacW}SsRβs1939
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    72D4-72D5
    72D4-72D5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (13)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (158)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     

    monoclonal, polyclonal

    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Taf110 l(3)72Dj

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    The 'l(3)72Dj' (Taf4) complementation group comprises 4 EMS-induced mutant alleles.

    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.

    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of Taf4 results in dorsal overextension of primary dendrites and a reduction in lateral branching. RNAi also causes defects in muscle, defects in dendrite morphogenesis and reproducible defects in da dendrite development.

    The proteins encoded by Taf4, Taf5, Taf6, e(y)1 and Taf12 form a core sub-complex of TFIID. Of these, Taf4 protein plays the most critical role in maintaining stability of the TFIID complex.

    The C-terminal domain of the Taf4 protein is necessary and sufficient for nucleating a holo-TFIID complex.

    The proteins encoded by Taf1 and Taf4 have a specific role in transcription activation from TATA-less, downstream core promoter element (DPE)-containing promoters.

    Area matching Drosophila TAF110 gene, Acc. No. L06861. Probable intron.

    An interplay of dl and twi proteins with Taf4 protein is required for the activation of mesoderm-determining gene expression in the embryo.

    Interacts, in vitro, with human thryroid-hormone receptor-β.

    The products of the Taf4 and Taf6 loci serve as coactivators to mediate transcriptional activation by the bcd and hb enhancer binding proteins. A quadruple complex containing Tbp, Taf1, Taf4 and Taf6 mediates transcriptional synergism by bcd and hb, whereas triple Tbp-Taf complexes lacking one or other coactivator failed to support synergistic activation. The concerted action of multiple regulators with different coactivators helps to establish the pattern and level of segmentation gene transcription during development.

    Mutagenesis studies in combination with protein binding experiments and reconstituted transcription reactions identified two independent activation domains of bcd that target different coactivator subunits (Taf4 and Taf6). Both coactivators are required for bcd to recruit the Tbp-Taf complex to the promoter and direct synergistic activation of transcription. Contact between multiple activation domains for bcd and different targets within the TfIID complex can mediate transcriptional synergism.

    The assembly and purification of various functional Tbp TAF complexes demonstrate that Tbp plus the TAFs is sufficient to replace endogenous TFIID to support activated transcription in vitro.

    TFIID subunit proteins and the Tbp protein can interact in pairwise combinations with several subunits in a network of interactions within TFIID.

    The TFIID complex interacts with the promoters of Hsp70Bb, Hsp70Bc, Hsp26 and His3 making contacts at the TATA element, initiator, +18 and +28 regions.

    Purified TAF80 is unable to bind TBP directly or to interact strongly with the C-terminal domain of TAF250, but can only interact with a complex containing TBP, TAF250, TAF110 and TAF60.

    Cell culture studies suggest that TAF110 can functionally interact with Sp1 and serve as a coactivator of transcription.

    A number of polypeptides (encoded by Taf1, Taf4, Taf5, Taf6, e(y)1 and Taf12) that are tightly associated with Tbp and are native TFIID components have been purified. Protein blotting experiments suggest that one of these proteins, Taf1, interacts directly with Tbp, while the association between Tbp and the other proteins is either weak or is an indirect association via Taf1.

    In vitro expressed TAF110 interacts directly with the TAF250 which itself interacts with TBP, a complex of all three is suggested. Binding study with various mutants of Taf1 suggests that both TAF110 and TBP interact with the N-terminal 352-amino acid portion of TAF250.

    Tbp, Taf1, Taf4 and Taf6 products can assemble into a mini-complex in vitro, showing that Taf6 and Taf4 occupy distinct binding sites on the C terminal part of Taf1.

    The assembly of a partial complex containing recombinant TBF, TAF250 and TAF110 was reported. This triple complex supports activation of HeLa cell Sp1 and reveals specific interactions between Tbp, Taf1 and Taf4.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 72 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (31)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    SY3-2 TAF110
    TFIID 110
    Name Synonyms
    TATA-associated factor 110
    TBP associated factor 110
    TBP-associated factor
    TBP-associated factor 110
    TBP-associated factor 110kD
    TBP-associated factor 4
    lethal(3)72Dj
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0005542
    • FBgn0010419
    • FBgn0013958
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (167)