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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\brat
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
brain tumor
Annotation Symbol
CG10719
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010300
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
brain tumor (brat) encodes a tumor suppressor that regulates proliferation in the brain. During neural stem cell division, it segregates into one daughter cell where it inhibits protein translation, preventing self-renewal and inducing differentiation. It also acts during oogenesis where it interacts with the products of nos and pum to suppress hb translation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
l(2)37Cf, l(2)E60, lincRNA.S1565
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:19,133,816..19,179,758 [+]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
A NHL-domain family protein that functions a translational repressor to inhibit cell proliferation (PubMed:11274060). Plays a central role in translation repression of hb mRNA by being recruited by nos and pum to the Nanos Response Element (NRE), a 16 bp sequence in the hb mRNA 3'-UTR (PubMed:11274060). Probably recruited by other proteins to repress translation of other mRNAs in other tissues (PubMed:11274060). Involved in the regulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell growth (PubMed:11807032). Participates in abdominal segmentation and imaginal disk development (PubMed:11274060). During neuroblast division, segregates asymmetrically and inhibits self-renewal of one of the two daughter cells (PubMed:16564014). Together with the asymmetrically segregating transcription factor prospero ensures that the daughter cell will stop growing, exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into neurons possibly by modulating the function of dm in ganglion mother cells (GMC) (PubMed:11807032, PubMed:16564014). Restrics developmental potential of type II intermediary neuronal progenitor (INP) cells playing a role in proliferation and maturation of the neuroblasts (PubMed:24550111, PubMed:14561773, PubMed:22143802, PubMed:18342578).
(UniProt, Q8MQJ9)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
l(2)37Cf
Lethality occurs as pharate adults. Third-instar larvae of 13 of 14 alleles examined display enlarged brains-up to eight times normal volume; greatest in presumptive optic center (Hankins and Wright). Brain fragments transplanted into normal adults show uncontrolled proliferation and metastatic invasion of other tissues (Gateff). Escapers [l(2)37Cf1/l(2)37Cfts3] lethargic and sterile in both sexes [Wright, 1987, Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation (W. Hennig, ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 95-120]. Homozygous females [l(2)37Cffs2] retain eggs in ovaries (Schupbach).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\brat or the JBrowse view of Dmel\brat for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Multiple (sequential) stage-specific extensions of 3' UTRs observed during embryogenesis (FBrf0215804); all variants may not be annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081158
4544
1037
FBtr0081159
4963
1037
FBtr0081160
12088
1037
FBtr0336627
6258
1061
FBtr0344846
4869
1037
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.933 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080702
110.4
1037
7.21
FBpp0080703
110.4
1037
7.21
FBpp0089239
110.4
1037
7.21
FBpp0307610
113.2
1061
7.30
FBpp0311161
110.4
1037
7.21
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1037 aa isoforms: brat-PA, brat-PB, brat-PC, brat-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with nos and pum (PubMed:11274060). Acts via the formation of a quaternary complex composed of pum, nos, brat and the 3'-UTR mRNA of hb (PubMed:11274060). Not recruited by nos and pum to cyclin B 3'-UTR mRNA (PubMed:11274060). Might interact with mira; the interaction seems to be important for brat localization during mitosis (PubMed:16564014).
(UniProt, Q8MQJ9)
Domain
The NHL repeats form six-bladed beta-propeller that mediate the interaction with the pumilio repeats of pum, and are essential for translational effector function.
(UniProt, Q8MQJ9)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\brat using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (37 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P25724
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8MQJ9
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:eIF4EHP; FB:FBgn0053100
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001188366
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000315
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (25 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (22 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P25439
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q26263
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001188366
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001188366
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

ventral nerve cord primordium

Comment: reported as ventral nerve cord anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

embryonic ventral nervous system

Comment: expression starts late in embryonic stage 12

presumptive embryonic/larval peripheral nervous system

Comment: expression starts late in embryonicstage 12

embryonic brain

Comment: expression starts late in embryonic stage 12

Additional Descriptive Data
brat transcripts are expressed throughout the germline, including in the germline stem cells, however brat protein is excluded from the germline stem cells.
brat transcripts are detected early and late in embryogenesis but transcripts containing the 3' UTR extension (~8.5 kb) are only detected at later stages and appear after the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Sequential, phased, 3' UTR lengthening is seen (3' UTR lengthening ocurring in multiple steps during later stages of embryogenesis). brat extended 3' UTR transcripts are expressed specifically in the nervous system.
brat is expressed in the developing brain, the ventral CNS, and the PNS starting at stage 11. Expression is detected in the ganglion mother cells starting at stage 13. In stage 16 embryos, 4 clusters of peripheral neurons express brat. The lacZ reporter construct Ecol\lacZbrat-k06028 shows additional staining in cardioblasts from stage 11 to 17, which was not detected by brat in situ hybridization. See Ecol\lacZbrat-k06028RA for reporter construct expression, including expression in larval stages.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
While brat transcripts are expressed in germline stem cells, brat protein is excluded from germline stem cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\brat in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 92 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 40 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of brat
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of brat
Deletions and Duplications ( 37 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
wing & trichogen cell
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
2 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
2 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (8)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903EZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501N8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01YF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01W2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G02UY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with nos and pum (PubMed:11274060). Acts via the formation of a quaternary complex composed of pum, nos, brat and the 3'-UTR mRNA of hb (PubMed:11274060). Not recruited by nos and pum to cyclin B 3'-UTR mRNA (PubMed:11274060). Might interact with mira; the interaction seems to be important for brat localization during mitosis (PubMed:16564014).
(UniProt, Q8MQJ9 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-54
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:19,133,816..19,179,758 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
37C1-37C6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Ddck02104 and P{lacW}bratk06028&P{lacW}l(2)k09613k09613
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
37C1-37D1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
37C6-37C7
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
37C5-37C6
37C5--7 37C6--7
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (50)
Genomic Clones (26)
cDNA Clones (214)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
monoclonal
polyclonal
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: brat anon-37CDa
Additional comments
Source for merge of brat anon-37CDa was sequence comparison ( date:991108 ).
Other Comments
brat specifies intermediate neural progenitor identity through its B-box domains, downregulating the transcriptional activity of arm via a mechanism that is independent of asymmetric protein segregation.
brat regulates synapse development and endocytosis at the neuromuscular junction by suppressing translation of Mad.
Loss of brat in larvae causes neoplastic brain tumors. Fragments of brat brain tumours transplanted into adult hosts over-proliferate and kill their hosts within 2 weeks.
brat-induced metastases express both neuronal (elav) and glial cell (repo) type markers.
The brat gene product acts as a posttranscriptional inhibitor of dm in one of the two daughter cells of larval neuroblasts.
brat and 4EHP interact physically and both play a role in hb regulation.
S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.
brat appears to be involved in negatively regulating the level of cellular rRNA.
brat is a translational repressor.
Located between coordinates +45.7 and +50.0.
Mutants display a brain neoplastic phenotype.
Mutations at the brat locus cause defects in midoogenesis.
Lethality occurs as pharate adults. Third-instar larvae of 13 of 14 alleles examined display enlarged brains -- up to eight times normal volume; greatest in presumptive optic center (Hankins and Wright). Brain fragments transplanted into normal adults show uncontrolled proliferation and metastatic invasion of other tissues (Gateff).
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 104 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
E60
anon-37CDa
brat
(Meltzer et al., 2019, Mirkovic et al., 2019, Mirzoyan et al., 2019, Raza et al., 2019, Arbeille and Bashaw, 2018, Chai et al., 2018, Kang et al., 2018, Landskron et al., 2018, Loewen et al., 2018, Mora et al., 2018, Reichardt et al., 2018, Rossi et al., 2018, Wissel et al., 2018, Yamaguchi and Takashima, 2018, Banerjee and Roy, 2017, Janssens et al., 2017, Liu et al., 2017, Ma et al., 2017, Perry et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Vallejos Baier et al., 2017, Wu et al., 2017, Narbonne-Reveau et al., 2016, Shlyueva et al., 2016, Bivik et al., 2015, Fernando et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Gogendeau et al., 2015, Huang et al., 2015, Laver et al., 2015, Liu et al., 2015, Loedige et al., 2015, model organism Encyclopedia of Regulatory Network (modERN) Project, 2015-, Newton et al., 2015, Oktaba et al., 2015, Sinkovics, 2015, Weng and Cohen, 2015, Chen et al., 2014, Ferreira et al., 2014, Homem et al., 2014, Janssens et al., 2014, Komori et al., 2014, Komori et al., 2014, Luck et al., 2014, Miles et al., 2014, Olesnicky et al., 2014, Southall et al., 2014, Tipping and Perrimon, 2014, Xu et al., 2014, Chai et al., 2013, Jüschke et al., 2013, Neumüller et al., 2013, Shi et al., 2013, Southall et al., 2013, Adamson and Lajeunesse, 2012, Berger et al., 2012, Bunt et al., 2012, Carney et al., 2012, Hilgers et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Justiniano et al., 2012, Li et al., 2012, Mihailovich et al., 2012, Miles et al., 2012, Olesnicky et al., 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Saini and Reichert, 2012, Smibert et al., 2012, Xiao et al., 2012, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Boyan and Reichert, 2011, Harris et al., 2011, Hilgers et al., 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Neumüller et al., 2011, Zhu et al., 2011, Chang et al., 2010, Janic et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Rigoutsos, 2010, Temme et al., 2010, Ayroles et al., 2009, Flaherty et al., 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Robine et al., 2009, Saito et al., 2009, Sousa-Nunes et al., 2009, Stone and Ayroles, 2009, Basto et al., 2008, Berger et al., 2008, Bowman et al., 2008, FlyBase Curators, 2008-, Muraro et al., 2008, Neumuller et al., 2008, O'Farrell et al., 2008, Beaucher et al., 2007, Beaucher et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Tadros et al., 2007, Tountas and Fortini, 2007, Zhang et al., 2007, Bowler et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Stroschein-Stevenson et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wodarz and Gonzalez, 2006, Beckstead et al., 2005, Caussinus and Gonzalez, 2005, Laviolette et al., 2005, Loop et al., 2004, McCrady and Tolin, 1994)
fs(2)ltoPM43
l(2)brat
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0002034
  • FBgn0004827
  • FBgn0027355
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References (297)