General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Tbh
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Tyramine β hydroxylase
Annotation Symbol
CG1543
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010329
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Dopamine beta-monooxygenase (1.14.17.1)
Gene Snapshot
Tyramine β hydroxylase (Tbh) is a monooxygenase and the key limiting enzyme in octopamine synthesis. Tbh regulates egg laying, positive associative olfactory learning and memory, aggression, flight initiation and maintenance, locomotor activity and attraction to ethanol containing food sources. [Date last reviewed: 2016-09-01]
Also Known As
Tβh, TβM, TΒh
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:7,995,697..8,027,394 [+]
Recombination map
1-22
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family. (Q86B61)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine + ascorbate + O(2) = noradrenaline + dehydroascorbate + H(2)O (1.14.17.1)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
PAIRED DONOR OXIDOREDUCTASES, INCORPORATION OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN, ASCORBATE AS DONOR -
Paired donor oxidoreductases, incorporation of molecular oxygen, ascorbate as donor include, dehydrogenases that catalyze an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which hydrogen or electrons are transferred from reduced ascorbate and one other donor, and one atom of oxygen is incorporated into one donor.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Converts tyramine into octopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in ovulation and locomotion (PubMed:14623230, PubMed:14978721, PubMed:8656284). Functions in an amine-mediated Bacc-dependent signaling pathway that negatively regulates acute ethanol sensitivity (PubMed:23142736).
(UniProt, Q86B61)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Tbh or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Tbh for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089999
3772
670
FBtr0340409
3771
670
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0089042
77.7
670
6.89
FBpp0309355
77.7
670
6.89
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

670 aa isoforms: Tbh-PB, Tbh-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Tbh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (24 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001605435
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000806665
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000806665
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000806665
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000806665
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001605435
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000806665
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000806665
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Tbh protein is detected in around 112 neurons in the adult brain, corresponding to 16 distinct clusters, and around 39 neurons in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion, corresponding to 5 clusters. Co-localisation with Scer\GAL4Tdc2.PC in the brain is observed in the octopaminergic AL2 (G3a) cluster, in the G3b and 3 ventral clusters (VMI to VMIII). In the thoracico-abdominal ganglion, 37 of the 39 Tbh-positive neurons also express Scer\GAL4Tdc2.PC.
Tbhimmunoreactivity is detected in neurons in the midline of the ventral abdominal ganglia that innervate the oviducts and the calyx of the ovary in females.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Tbh-GAL4.6.2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: PBac{Tbh-QF.S}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Tbh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 13 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903Y4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502L9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05RJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0318 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03XS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-22
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:7,995,697..8,027,394 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    7D2-7D2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}snEP1217 and P{EP}Ubc-E2HEP1303
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    7D1-7D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (27)
    cDNA Clones (6)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for identity of: Tbh CG1543
          Source for database merge of
          Additional comments
          Other Comments
          Tbh is important for courtship conditioning in males.
          Mutants show partially impaired sugar-reward learning, but relief learning is unaffected.
          Tbh controls ovulation (the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the oviducts) in females.
          Isolation and characterisation of Tbh.
          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 125 )
          Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Linkouts
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyCyc - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (28)
          Reported As
          Symbol Synonym
          Dbh
          Secondary FlyBase IDs
          • FBgn0012186
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (159)