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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Dro
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Drosocin
Annotation Symbol
CG10816
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010388
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Drosocin (Dro) encodes an o-Glycosylated antibacterial peptide with activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It is expressed in the fat body during the systemic immune response and is expressed in various epithelia. The expression of Dro is regulated at the transcriptional level mostly by the immune deficiency pathway. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

Drc, DIM 15, DIM 9, DIM 11, Drs

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:14,745,961..14,746,714 [+]
Recombination map

2-72

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:14745961..14746714
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the drosocin family. (P36193)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Experimental Evidence
    -
    Predictions / Assertions
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES - OTHER -
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small secreted peptides with antifungal or antibacterial activity. AMPs are part of the innate immune response. The AMP-OTHER gene group encompasses AMPs that are single gene family members in D.mel. (Adapted from FBrf0241672.)
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Antibacterial peptide with strong anti-Gram-negative bacteria activity.
    (UniProt, P36193)
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Dro or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Dro for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.40

    Gene model reviewed during 5.50

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0087436
    355
    64
    FBtr0309055
    754
    64
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0086566
    7.1
    64
    11.81
    FBpp0301076
    7.1
    64
    11.81
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

    64 aa isoforms: Dro-PA, Dro-PB
    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Post Translational Modification

    O-glycosylation is essential for full biological activity.

    (UniProt, P36193)
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Dro using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (8 terms)
    Molecular Function (0 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Biological Process (7 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    non-traceable author statement
    traceable author statement
    Cellular Component (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from direct assay
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\Dro in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 1 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Dro
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Dro
    Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190KLW )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2R
      Recombination map

      2-72

      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2R:14,745,961..14,746,714 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      51C1-51C1
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}ttvk03617&P{EP}ttvEP765 and P{lacW}Rpn6k00103
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      51C1-51C6
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (3)
      Genomic Clones (26)
      cDNA Clones (12)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of

        Source for merge of: Dro IM15

        Source for merge of: Dro BcDNA:RH31634

        Additional comments

        Source for merge of Dro BcDNA:RH31634 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

        Other Comments

        Identified as a gene with significant level of mRNA cycling as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated from adult heads harvested over six time points over the course of a day. Shows alteration in expression in a Clk mutant background.

        Identification: Encodes a protein that is induced by immune challenge.

        Ecol\lacZDpt.PR adults are pricked with a sterile needle dipped in culture pellets of various living microorganisms (distinct bacterial strains, fungal spores or hyphae). Pricking results in a low but clearly detectable expression of all antimicrobial genes and these genes are induced above the background level by specific classes of microorganism.

        Glycopeptides of Dro are isolated and the range of activities of these molecules is studied.

        Cloning and characterisation of Dro. 2.5kb of upstream sequence confers inducibility and tissue specificity to a transgene.

        Genes encoding antibacterial peptides are regulated in a manner distinct from that of Drs, encoding the antifungal peptide.

        Transcription is not strongly induced by hymenopteran parasitoids.

        Dro encodes a 19-residue proline-rich inducible antibacterial peptide, which has an O-glycosylation that is necessary for its full biological activity.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 93 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        BcDNA:RH31634
        IM15
        Name Synonyms
        Drosocin precursor
        Drosophila Immune induced molecule 11
        Drosophila Immune induced molecule 15
        Drosophila Immune induced molecule 9
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0062947
        • FBgn0067904
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (231)