General Information
Symbol
Dmel\htl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
heartless
Annotation Symbol
CG7223
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010389
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinase (2.7.10.1)
Gene Snapshot
Heartless (Htl) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for secreted FGF ligands that utilizes the intracellular Ras-MAP kinase pathway. Htl contributes to embryonic mesoderm migration and the specification of several mature mesodermal cell derivatives. [Date last reviewed: 2017-03-02]
Also Known As
DFR1, FGFR, DmHD-38, DFGF-R2, DFR-1
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:18,045,216..18,052,984 [-]
Recombination map
3-62
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. (Q07407)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate (2.7.10.1)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate (2.7.10.1)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES -
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are single-pass transmembrane receptors expressed on the plasma membrane. Upon the binding of an extracellular signalling molecule (e.g. growth factors, hormones), RTKs dimerize leading to the activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and intermolecular phosphorylation. The phosphotyrosines function as specific sites for the assembly, phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules. (Adapted from PMID:20602996).
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
May be required for patterning of muscle precursor cells. May be essential for generation of mesodermal and endodermal layers, invaginations of various types of cells and CNS formation.
(UniProt, Q07407)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\htl or the JBrowse view of Dmel\htl for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.54
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083549
3611
729
FBtr0083548
3838
729
FBtr0083550
3492
729
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.840, 3.623 (longest cDNA)
3.3 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082971
82.6
729
6.64
FBpp0082970
82.6
729
6.64
FBpp0082972
82.6
729
6.64
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

729 aa isoforms: htl-PA, htl-PB, htl-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\htl using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (51 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR016248, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR016248
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P11362
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (41 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (31 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P11362
(assigned by UniProt )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001230353
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002356460
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

Additional Descriptive Data
htl transcripts are expressed in the eye disc glia with most prominent expression at the
front of the migratory glial cell population.
Embryonic htl expression is observed in the dorsal pharyngeal head mesoderm and in parts of the procephalic ectoderm.
htl transcripts are first observed at stage 5 in a 16-17 cell wide ventral strip that runs from 10 to 85% egg length. During stages 6 and 7, the htl-expressing cells invaginate to form mesoderm. By stage 9, expression can be seen in the cephalic and somatic mesoderm. At stage 11, overall staining of mesoderm disappears, and is replaced by strong expression in a small number of cells in the ventrolateral portion of each segment. By stage 12, three rows of htl-expressing cells are found along the body wall. These appear to be precursors cells for dorsal, pleural, and ventral groups of muscles. The majority of htl-positive cells appear to differentiate into muscle. htl expression is also observed in the CNS as well as in the cells surrounding the hindgut and foregut.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mesoderm

Comment: NOT embryonic salivary gland

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
the photoreceptor axons.
htl protein is expressed broadly in the glia and decorates glial projections following
Most of the adepithelial cells of the third instar wing disc express the htl protein except for a small subset of cells that express btl and go on to develop into the adult tracheal system.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4-htl.OS}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{htl-lacZ.800}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\htl in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 23 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of htl
Allele of htl
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of htl
GAL4 construct
Name
Expression Data
reporter construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
axon & mechanosensory neuron & adult head, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096, Scer\GAL4Mz1277, Scer\GAL4twi.PB, htlYY262/htlAB42
axon & mechanosensory neuron & adult head, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
axon & mechanosensory neuron & adult head, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4, htlAB42
axon & mechanosensory neuron & adult head, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4, htlDN.UAS.cMb
axon & mechanosensory neuron & adult head (with htlAB42), with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096, Scer\GAL4Mz1277, Scer\GAL4twi.PB, htlUAS.cMa
axon & mechanosensory neuron & adult head (with htlYY262), with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096, Scer\GAL4Mz1277, Scer\GAL4twi.PB, htlUAS.cMa
axon & ocellus sensory structure, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
axon & ocellus sensory structure, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4, htlAB42
axon & ocellus sensory structure, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4, htlDN.UAS.cMb
axon & ocellus sensory structure (with htlAB42), with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096, Scer\GAL4Mz1277, Scer\GAL4twi.PB, htlUAS.cMa
axon & ocellus sensory structure (with htlYY262), with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096, Scer\GAL4Mz1277, Scer\GAL4twi.PB, htlUAS.cMa
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (18)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (17)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
10 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (27)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (27)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (23)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903L0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501DH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01FR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01DY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0CQZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 1 )
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-62
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:18,045,216..18,052,984 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    90E2-90E2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}cpoEP3679 and P{EP}Dlc90FEP3634
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (20)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (37)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: htl CG7223
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Identified by PCR fragment; relationship to other protein tyrosine kinase genes not known.
    Other Comments
    The htl FGF receptor autonomously controls astrocyte membrane growth in the embryo. The FGFs pyr and ths direct astrocyte processes to ramify specifically in central nervous system synaptic regions.
    When dsRNA constructs are made and transiently transfected into S2 cells in RNAi experiments, an increase in cytokinetic index is seen.
    One of 42 Drosophila genes identified as being most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to human Mental Retardation disorders.
    Embryos deficient for htl show an almost complete absence of longitudinal visceral fibers at late stages.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    wg and htl act over sequential but interdependent phases of hindgut visceral mesoderm development, with htl promoting proper differentiation of the visceral mesoderm itself.
    htl signalling is inhibited by sty.
    Mutants exhibit germ cell migration defects.
    Mutants exhibit mesodermal spreading (mesodermal cells migrate in an undirected fashion and fail to reach their normal dorsal positions) and cell fate specification loss of function phenotypes.
    htl is required for the normal formation of the heart, visceral and somatic muscles, and is also required for central nervous system formation in the embryo.
    Phenotypes of null mutant embryos (several mesodermal lineages are severely deranged or missing) demonstrates htl is a central player that is required for the development of several mesodermal lineages.
    A common role for htl in cell migration and tissue organisation may account for the pleiotrophic defects of the htl mutation.
    htl signalling provides a vital connection between initial formation of the embryonic mesoderm and subsequent cell-fate specification within this germ layer.
    Proper mesodermal cell migration (somatic, cardiac and visceral) is dependent on the function of a fibroblast growth factor receptor encoded by htl.
    htl acts as a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGRF) in Xenopus embryos.
    Isolated from a genomic library using a cDNA fragment encoding the human α-platelet derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase domain as a probe, under low stringency conditions.
    htl is involved in neural development.
    FGF-receptor homologues are essential for the generation of mesodermal and endodermal layers, invaginations of various types of cells and CNS formation.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 97 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Dfr1
    Fr1
    HD-38
    Tk1
    htl
    (Schwarz et al., 2018, Zülbahar et al., 2018, Koenecke et al., 2017, Park et al., 2017, Rothenbusch-Fender et al., 2017, Cameron et al., 2016, Moulton and Letsou, 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Chaston et al., 2015, Dequéant et al., 2015, Grotewiel and Bettinger, 2015, Andlauer et al., 2014, Kim et al., 2014, Rembold et al., 2014, Sopko et al., 2014, Stork et al., 2014, Weitkunat and Schnorrer, 2014, Muha and Müller, 2013, Ozkan et al., 2013, Rudolf et al., 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Tixier et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Zhu and Zhang, 2013, Cole et al., 2012.7.6, Mukherjee et al., 2012, Reim et al., 2012, Cherbas et al., 2011, Grigorian et al., 2011, Knox et al., 2011, Kuzina et al., 2011, Mariappa et al., 2011, Park et al., 2011, Sen et al., 2011, McMahon et al., 2010, Boettiger and Levine, 2009, Cronin et al., 2009, Franzdóttir et al., 2009, Kadam et al., 2009, Witte et al., 2009, Wu et al., 2009, Cook et al., 2008.7.11, Hozumi et al., 2008, McMahon et al., 2008, Nicholson et al., 2008, Yan and Lin, 2008, Dietzl et al., 2007, Halfon and Leatherbarrow, 2007, Lecuyer et al., 2007, Murray and Saint, 2007, Ratnaparkhi and Zinn, 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Thomas and van Meyel, 2007, Toledano-Katchalski et al., 2007, Yan and Lin, 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Zeitouni et al., 2007, de Velasco et al., 2006, Estrada et al., 2006, Maqbool et al., 2006, Montell, 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Kristiansen et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Forni et al., 2004, Mandal et al., 2004, Petit et al., 2004, Garcia-Alonso et al., 2000)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0004599
    • FBgn0022791
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    References (337)