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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\msn
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
misshapen
Annotation Symbol
CG16973
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010909
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
misshapen (msn) encodes a Sterile 20 MAP kinase kinase kinase. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

l(3)06946, NIK, l(3)j1E2, Mishappen

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:2,554,847..2,586,540 [-]
Recombination map
3-3
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:2554847..2586540
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (28 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR021160
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (20 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in dorsal closure
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:bsk; FB:FBgn0000229
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hep; FB:FBgn0010303
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in JNK cascade
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:bsk; FB:FBgn0000229
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hep; FB:FBgn0010303
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Traf4; FB:FBgn0026319
involved_in nuclear migration
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hppy; FB:FBgn0263395
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hpo; FB:FBgn0261456
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:wts; FB:FBgn0011739
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001969365
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in MAPK cascade
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000685430
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000685430
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:ninaC; FB:FBgn0002938
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000000072
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001969365
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001969365
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cell cortex
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with contractile ring
inferred from high throughput direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
misshapen (msn) encodes a Sterile 20 MAP kinase kinase kinase. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
GERMINAL CENTER KINASES -
Germinal center kinases (GCKs) are serine/threonine kinases characterised by an N-terminal STE20 kinase domain. They have diverse roles in signaling pathways; some are MAPK kinase kinase kinases, activating MAPK kinase kinases. (Adapted from FBrf0225276 and FBrf0228279).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Negative regulators of the pathway down-regulate the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
TNFα-Eiger Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) signaling pathway is activated by Eiger (egr) binding to a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. The signal is primarily transduced via the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade, leading to cell death. (Adapted from FBrf0225608.)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Ste20-like kinase - conveys Rac signals to Basket/Jnk during dorsal closure - TIPE family member Sigmar interacts with Misshapen and modulates JNK signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling and autophagy.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\msn for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072956
6418
1504
FBtr0072957
5506
1200
FBtr0072959
4268
1102
FBtr0072958
5206
1102
FBtr0333362
5271
1404
FBtr0333363
4282
1101
FBtr0333364
4618
1213
FBtr0333365
5643
1200
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072830
162.4
1504
9.82
FBpp0089310
130.3
1200
8.86
FBpp0089312
120.7
1102
8.06
FBpp0089311
120.7
1102
8.06
FBpp0305554
152.6
1404
9.58
FBpp0305555
120.6
1101
7.94
FBpp0305556
131.6
1213
8.53
FBpp0305557
130.3
1200
8.86
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1200 aa isoforms: msn-PB, msn-PI
1102 aa isoforms: msn-PC, msn-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\msn using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cell cortex
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with contractile ring
inferred from high throughput direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\msn in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 35 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 34 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of msn
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of msn
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 11 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
eye photoreceptor cell & axon
eye photoreceptor cell & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
eye photoreceptor cell & axon | somatic clone
eye photoreceptor cell & growth cone
microchaeta & scutum, with Scer\GAL4ap-md544
photoreceptor & axon, with Scer\GAL469B, msn102
photoreceptor & axon, with Scer\GAL469B, msnP656A,P659A.UAS
photoreceptor & axon | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell & axon
photoreceptor cell | precursor & nucleus, with Scer\GAL4unspecified
photoreceptor cell | precursor & nucleus, with Scer\GAL4unspecified, msn03349
photoreceptor cell | precursor & nucleus, with Scer\GAL4unspecified, msnDN.UAS
photoreceptor cell | precursor & nucleus | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell R1 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
photoreceptor cell R1 & axon (with msn102)
photoreceptor cell R1 & axon (with msn03349)
photoreceptor cell R1 & axon | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell R2 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
photoreceptor cell R2 & axon (with msn102)
photoreceptor cell R2 & axon (with msn03349)
photoreceptor cell R2 & axon | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell R3 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
photoreceptor cell R3 & axon (with msn102)
photoreceptor cell R3 & axon (with msn03349)
photoreceptor cell R3 & axon | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell R4 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
photoreceptor cell R4 & axon (with msn102)
photoreceptor cell R4 & axon (with msn03349)
photoreceptor cell R4 & axon | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell R5 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
photoreceptor cell R5 & axon (with msn102)
photoreceptor cell R5 & axon (with msn03349)
photoreceptor cell R5 & axon | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell R6 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
photoreceptor cell R6 & axon (with msn102)
photoreceptor cell R6 & axon (with msn03349)
photoreceptor cell R6 & axon | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell R7 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
photoreceptor cell R8 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
1  
11 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901AQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500QW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00L0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00JZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G018A )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (16)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Negative regulators of the pathway down-regulate the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
TNFα-Eiger Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) signaling pathway is activated by Eiger (egr) binding to a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. The signal is primarily transduced via the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade, leading to cell death. (Adapted from FBrf0225608.)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map
3-3
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:2,554,847..2,586,540 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
62E6-62E7
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Spn06911 and P{PZ}l(3)0680306803
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
62E5-62E7
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
62E5-62E8
(determined by in situ hybridisation) 62E6--7 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
62E6-62E7
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
66E6-66E7
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
62E5-62E8
62E6--7 62F6--6
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes

msn maps less than 1cM from ecd.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (20)
Genomic Clones (42)
cDNA Clones (100)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Nik CG16973

    Source for merge of: msn Nik

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    msn acts through bsk in epithelial planar polarity (EPP) signalling.

    msn acts downstream of fz and dsh in the epithelial planar polarity (EPP) signalling pathway in eyes and wings.

    msn is required for the proper targetting of the R1-R6 photoreceptor cell growth cones in the developing visual system.

    Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.

    msn functions upstream of hep and bsk to stimulate dorsal closure in the embryo.

    Identification: Enhancer trap screen designed to discover genes involved in the cellular aspects of defense mechanisms, as well as in melanotic tumor formation processes linked to blood cell dysregulation.

    msn is required for the normal shape and orientation of photoreceptor cells and is essential for oogenesis. msn may act in a signal transduction pathway leading to cytoskeletal rearrangements.

    The autosomal "FLP-DFS" technique (using the P{ovoD1-18} P{FRT(whs)} P{hsFLP} chromosomes) has been used to identify the specific maternal effect phenotype for the zygotic lethal mutation.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 76 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Nik
    l(3)03349
    msn
    (Akai et al., 2021, Kong et al., 2021, Kumar et al., 2021, Lebo et al., 2021, Chen et al., 2020, Cho et al., 2020, Krautz et al., 2020, Parker et al., 2020, Pegoraro et al., 2020, Sundararajan et al., 2020, Banerjee et al., 2019, Engel et al., 2019, Herrera and Bach, 2019, La Marca et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Park et al., 2019, Bushnell et al., 2018, Chi et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Poon et al., 2018, Crest et al., 2017, Fochler et al., 2017, Lu et al., 2017, Ma et al., 2017, Bernstein et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Juarez, 2016, Ko et al., 2016, Shen et al., 2016, Aradska et al., 2015, Chittaranjan et al., 2015, Doggett et al., 2015, Kavi et al., 2015, Meng et al., 2015, Mishra et al., 2015, Nie et al., 2015, Ugrankar et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Evans et al., 2014, Fernández et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Lye et al., 2014, Pereira et al., 2014, Sopko et al., 2014, Wong et al., 2014, Carter, 2013, Ghezzi et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Lavagnino et al., 2013, Rudrapatna et al., 2013, Aoki et al., 2012, Daulat et al., 2012, Etchegaray et al., 2012, Gates, 2012, Horne-Badovinac et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Marchal et al., 2012, Muñoz-Soriano et al., 2012, Brumby et al., 2011, Carreira et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Glatter et al., 2011, Juarez et al., 2011, Kaneko et al., 2011, Kim and McGinnis, 2011, Mathew et al., 2011, Seisenbacher et al., 2011, Sinenko et al., 2011, Avet-Rochex et al., 2010, Baek et al., 2010, Cobreros-Reguera et al., 2010, Cook et al., 2010.2.12, Djiane and Mlodzik, 2010, Garlena et al., 2010, Grzeschik et al., 2010, Reis et al., 2010, Yavari et al., 2010, Carreira et al., 2009, Markovic et al., 2009, Pearson et al., 2009, Tiwari and Roy, 2009, Tokusumi et al., 2009, Tokusumi et al., 2009, Bakal et al., 2008, Carrera et al., 2008, Maillet et al., 2008, Balakireva et al., 2007, Link et al., 2007, Muñoz-Descalzo et al., 2007, Tyler et al., 2007, Walther and Pichaud, 2007, Balakireva et al., 2006, Delaney et al., 2006, Koppen et al., 2006, Polaski et al., 2006, Mattila et al., 2005, Wech and Nagel, 2005, Kadrmas et al., 2004)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010797
    • FBgn0024520
    • FBgn0035351
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    References (298)