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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dia
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
diaphanous
Annotation Symbol
CG1768
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011202
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
diaphanous (dia) encodes the sole Dia-class formin in Drosophila. It nucleates actin filaments de novo and acts as a processive actin polymerase, stimulating actin addition at the barbed end. It plays an essential role in cytokinesis and also regulates cell shape change and protrusion. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
38E.16, l(2)k07135
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:20,758,144..20,768,053 [+]
Recombination map
2-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the formin homology family. Diaphanous subfamily. (P48608)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for cytokinesis in both mitosis and meiosis. Has a role in actin cytoskeleton organization and is essential for many, if not all, actin-mediated events involving membrane invagination. May serve as a mediator between signaling molecules and actin organizers at specific phases of the cell cycle. Possible component of the contractile ring or may control its function.
(UniProt, P48608)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\dia or the JBrowse view of Dmel\dia for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081410
4743
1091
FBtr0081411
4465
1091
FBtr0305960
1775
130
FBtr0305961
3797
1098
FBtr0335145
5260
1091
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.8, 4.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080940
123.2
1091
8.25
FBpp0080941
123.2
1091
8.25
FBpp0297102
14.5
130
10.05
FBpp0297103
124.0
1098
8.51
FBpp0307144
123.2
1091
8.25
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1091 aa isoforms: dia-PA, dia-PB, dia-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1091 (aa); 123 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Domain
The DAD domain regulates activation via by an autoinhibitory interaction with the GBD/FH3 domain. This autoinhibition is released upon competitive binding of an activated GTPase. The release of DAD allows the FH2 domain to then nucleate and elongate nonbranched actin filaments (By similarity).
(UniProt, P48608)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\dia using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (40 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:chic; FB:FBgn0000308
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Apc2; FB:FBgn0026598
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Eb1; FB:FBgn0027066
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Cip4; FB:FBgn0035533
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR010472, InterPro:IPR010473
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (26 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (26 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with actin filament
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with apical plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with cytoneme
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
dia transcript is expressed predominantly in tubular organs, including trachea, salivary glands, Malpighian tubules, the hindgut and the proventriculus, starting at embryonic stage 14. Transcript is localized to the apical side, facing the tube lumen.
dia transcripts are expressed in both males and females and are not germline specific.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
dia protein is apically localized in tubular organs.
dia protein is found pre- and postsynaptically at the third instar larval neuromuscular junction.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with actin filament
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with apical plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with cytoneme
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\dia in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 23 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 23 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of dia
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of dia
Deletions and Duplications ( 20 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
actin filament & embryonic/larval tracheal system
actin filament & embryonic/larval tracheal system, with Scer\GAL4btl.PS
contractile ring & meiotic cell cycle | male
contractile ring & meiotic cell cycle | male (with Df(2L)TW84)
larval central nervous system & neuroblast
spermatid & nucleus | supernumerary
spermatid & nucleus | supernumerary (with Df(2L)TW84)
spindle & meiotic cell cycle | male
spindle & meiotic cell cycle | male (with Df(2L)TW84)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (11)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (15)
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902DM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915016I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00ZH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00XQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G04ZJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-54
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:20,758,144..20,768,053 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
38E7-38E8
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Hr3802306&P{PZ}dia1 and P{EP}CG31673EP432
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
38E5-38E6
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Location based on deficiency mapping.
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (22)
Genomic Clones (21)
cDNA Clones (40)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: dia CG1768
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: dia l(2)k07135
Additional comments
null alleles lethal.
Other Comments
dia is required for establishing and maintaining distinct lateral and basal domains during cellularisation. Mutant embryos show an increased number of membrane extensions and endocytic activity in the basal domain, indicating a suppressing role of dia on membrane invaginations.
dia is required for generation of apical F-actin in diverse types of epithelial tubes in the embryo.
dia is required for furrow canal formation during cellularisation.
dsRNA directed against this gene causes defects in cytokinesis when tested in an RNAi screen in S2 cells.
RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a binucleation phenotype when assayed in Kc167 cells.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: binucleate cells with increased or polarized (uneven) accumulation of F-actin.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.
dia has a role in actin cytoskeleton organisation.
dia function is required for cytokinesis.
Proliferation defect locus.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 71 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
ms(2)04138
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0022100
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (274)