General Information
Symbol
Dmel\eff
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
effete
Annotation Symbol
CG7425
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011217
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Effete (Eff) is a conserved class I E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that contributes to the protein ubiquitination and degradation pathway. Eff roles include female germline stem cell maintenance, eye development, apoptosis regulation and chromatin organization. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-23]
Also Known As
UbcD1, E(Pc)88D, ms(3)88D, UbcD, Ubc-D1
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:14,732,414..14,741,319 [-]
Recombination map
3-56
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. (P25867)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
UBIQUITIN CONJUGATING ENZYMES -
Ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes accept activated ubiquitin (or ubiquitin-like proteins) from ubiquitin-activating (E1) enzymes via thioester bond with a conserved catalytic cysteine. E2s then interact with ubiquitin ligases (E3) to directly or indirectly ubiquitinate target proteins. E2s are characterised by a 200 amino acid ubiquitin-conjugating (UBC) domain which interacts with E1 and E3s and acts catalytically. (Adapted from PMID:1994026).
Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulation the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to other proteins. Mediates the selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. Required for proper telomere behavior during cell divisions and possibly for ubiquitination of proteins involved in postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Deletion mutations are lethal in homozygotes.
(UniProt, P25867)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\eff or the JBrowse view of Dmel\eff for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Gene model reviewed during 5.43
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Gene model reviewed during 5.54
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083018
2084
147
FBtr0310554
1622
147
FBtr0336876
1913
147
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.1, 1.9, 1.7 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0082477
16.7
147
7.38
FBpp0302691
16.7
147
7.38
FBpp0307824
16.7
147
7.38
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

147 aa isoforms: eff-PA, eff-PB, eff-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
147 (aa); 17 (kD predicted)
Comments
eff protein can functionally replace yeast UBC4. It rescues growth defects and temperature sensitivity and restores proteolysis proficiency in ubc4 ubc5 double mutants.
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\eff using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:sina; FB:FBgn0003410
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with SGD:S000000286 , SGD:S000002466
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002514495
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000630862
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with SGD:S000000286 , SGD:S000002466
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000000286
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000002466
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000631055
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000630862
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The 2.1kb eff transcript is male-germ-line specific and initiates upstream of the shorter transcripts.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\eff in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 65 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of eff
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      0
      --
        0
        --
        Other relevant insertions
        insertion of mobile activating element
        Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
        Deletions and Duplications ( 6 )
        Summary of Phenotypes
        For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
        Lethality
        Allele
        Sterility
        Allele
        Other Phenotypes
        Allele
        Phenotype manifest in
        Allele
        egg chamber & cell
        egg chamber & mitotic cell cycle
        meiosis & chromosome, telomeric region | male
        meiosis & nuclear chromosome | male
        mitosis & chromosome, telomeric region
        nurse cell & nucleus
        Orthologs
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        13 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        12 of 15
        No
        Yes
         
        9 of 15
        No
        Yes
         
        8 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
         
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        11 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        10 of 15
        No
        Yes
        7 of 15
        No
        Yes
        6 of 15
        No
        Yes
        5 of 15
        No
        Yes
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
        8 of 13
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 13
        No
        Yes
        7 of 13
        No
        Yes
        5 of 13
        No
        Yes
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        1 of 13
        No
        No
        Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
        11 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 12
        No
        Yes
        6 of 12
        No
        Yes
        2 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        1 of 12
        No
        No
        Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
        11 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        9 of 15
        No
        Yes
        9 of 15
        No
        Yes
        8 of 15
        No
        Yes
        7 of 15
        No
        Yes
        6 of 15
        No
        Yes
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
        13 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
        7 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        7 of 9
        Yes
        Yes
        2 of 9
        No
        Yes
        1 of 9
        No
        No
        Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
        14 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        12 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        No
        Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
        11 of 12
        Yes
        Yes
        Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190HDH )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        AAA Syntenic Ortholog
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Drosophila melanogaster
        fruit fly
        Drosophila simulans
        Drosophila sechellia
        Drosophila erecta
        Drosophila yakuba
        Drosophila ananassae
        Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
        Drosophila persimilis
        Drosophila willistoni
        Drosophila virilis
        Drosophila mojavensis
        Drosophila grimshawi
        Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150C03 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Glossina morsitans
        Tsetse fly
        Lucilia cuprina
        Australian sheep blowfly
        Mayetiola destructor
        Hessian fly
        Aedes aegypti
        Yellow fever mosquito
        Anopheles darlingi
        American malaria mosquito
        Anopheles gambiae
        Malaria mosquito
        Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0IP9 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Heliconius melpomene
        Postman butterfly
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis mellifera
        Western honey bee
        Apis mellifera
        Western honey bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0DVW )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Strigamia maritima
        European centipede
        Ixodes scapularis
        Black-legged tick
        Ixodes scapularis
        Black-legged tick
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Daphnia pulex
        Water flea
        Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0GF8 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
        Purple sea urchin
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Ciona intestinalis
        Vase tunicate
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Gallus gallus
        Domestic chicken
        Human Disease Model Data
        FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
          Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
          Download
          Models ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Interactions ( 3 )
          Comments ( 0 )
           
          Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
          Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
          Functional Complementation Data
          Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
          Interactions
          Summary of Physical Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
          Select Layout:
          Legend:
          Protein
          RNA
          Selected Interactor(s)
          Interactions Browser

          Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
          protein-protein
          Interacting group
          Assay
          References
          Summary of Genetic Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          esyN Network Key:
          Suppression
          Enhancement

          Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          External Data
          Linkouts
          BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
          Pathways
          Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
          Chromosome (arm)
          3R
          Recombination map
          3-56
          Cytogenetic map
          Sequence location
          3R:14,732,414..14,741,319 [-]
          FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Evidence for location
          88D2-88D2
          Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG33967EP666 and P{lacW}Hsc70-4L3929
          Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Notes
          References
          88D5-88D6
          (determined by in situ hybridisation)
          Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
          Left of (cM)
          Right of (cM)
          Notes
          Stocks and Reagents
          Stocks (30)
          Genomic Clones (20)
          cDNA Clones (196)
           

          Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

          cDNA clones, fully sequences
          BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

            For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

            cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
            RNAi and Array Information
            Linkouts
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Antibody Information
            Laboratory Generated Antibodies
            Commercially Available Antibodies
             
            Other Information
            Relationship to Other Genes
            Source for database identify of
            Source for identity of: eff CG7425
            Source for database merge of
            Source for merge of: eff mei68
            Source for merge of: eff E(Pc)88D
            Source for merge of: eff anon-WO0118547.343
            Additional comments
            Source for merge of eff anon-WO0118547.343 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
            Other Comments
            DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for eff protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).
            Area matching Drosophila EST AI297203. This EST forms a 1122bp contig with AI455195 and AA438815.
            Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
            14 "SS3-3" alleles of eff have been isolated in a screen for dominant modifiers of the sinaGMR.PN eye phenotype.
            eff encodes a class I ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme required for proper telomere behaviour.
            An eff cDNA has been cloned.
            Mutants affect telomere behavior during mitosis and male meiosis. Some form of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis must occur in wild type cells to resolve the adhesion of telomeres prior to chromosome separation.
            Postmeiotic differentiation defect.
            Isolated by PCR using primers specific for yeast UBC1, UBC4, UBC5 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme subfamily.
            eff has been cloned and functionally analysed.
            Origin and Etymology
            Discoverer
            Etymology
            Named 'UbcD1' for 'ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from Drosophila 1 (the numbering reflects the order of identification).
            Named 'UbcD1' for 'ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster 1'. (The numbering reflects the order of gene identification and does NOT follow the numbering of yeast UBC genes).
            Identification
            External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 83 )
            Crossreferences
            NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
            GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
            RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
            UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            Linkouts
            BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
            FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
            FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
            Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
            Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
            FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
            Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
            KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
            modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
            SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
            Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
            Reported As
            Symbol Synonym
            anon-WO0118547.343
            l(3)01462
            l(3)j2C8
            l(3)s1782
            mei68
            ms(3)01295
            ms(3)1
            ms(3)3
            ms(3)neo2
            Secondary FlyBase IDs
            • FBgn0004831
            • FBgn0011011
            • FBgn0011333
            • FBgn0011657
            • FBgn0013661
            • FBgn0013663
            • FBgn0013935
            • FBgn0062081
            Datasets (1)
            Study focus (1)
            Experimental Role
            Project
            Project Type
            Title
            • transgene_used
            Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
            References (191)