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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Dif
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Dorsal-related immunity factor
Annotation Symbol
CG6794
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011274
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif) encodes a transcription factor that contributes to zygotic function of the Toll pathway, notably the regulation of antimicrobial peptides, but it is not involved in dorsoventral patterning of the embryo. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:17,413,248..17,433,161 [-]
Recombination map
2-53
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NUCLEAR FACTOR - KAPPA B -
The NF-κB transcription factor family share an N-terminal Rel homology domain. NF-κB transcription factors play a major role in development and immunity. (Adapted from FBrf0155649 and FBrf0210750).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Toll-NF-KappaB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Mediates an immune response in larvae (PubMed:8242747). DIF binds to the kappa-B consensus sequence 5'-GGRNNYYCC-3', located in the enhancer region of the immunity gene CECA1 (PubMed:8242747). Involved in the melanization immune response to bacterial challenge, possibly by acting in a Toll signaling pathway that downregulates Spn27A in response to infection (PubMed:12456640). Part of a signaling pathway involving NF-kappa-B (rel) and Toll-related receptors, that functions in the apoptosis of unfit cells during cell competition (PubMed:25477468). May be part of a NF-kappa-B and Tollo signaling cascade that regulates development of the peripheral nervous system (PubMed:18000549).
(UniProt, P98149)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Dif or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Dif for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081008
2835
667
FBtr0081009
2483
667
FBtr0301577
4306
987
FBtr0301578
2595
667
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.8 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080561
73.9
667
5.77
FBpp0080562
73.9
667
5.77
FBpp0290792
107.9
987
4.78
FBpp0290793
73.9
667
5.77
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

667 aa isoforms: Dif-PA, Dif-PB, Dif-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
667 (aa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Dif using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (27 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000652441
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Dif transcript is expressed in salivary glands at the end of the prepupal ecdyosne pulse.
dif is expressed at high levels in third instar larvae, pupae, and adults.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Dif protein is expressed in the larval fat body.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Dif in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 28 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Dif
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Dif
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
No
 
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
No
 
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
7 of 13
Yes
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
5 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903E6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501WO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W056Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X053D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07RW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Toll-NF-KappaB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-53
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:17,413,248..17,433,161 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    36C7-36C8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Mhck10423&P{lacW}Cask03902 and P{lacW}Aac11k06710
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    36C2-36C2
    36C-36C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (18)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (158)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: Dif CG6794
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    Dif does not show high cooperative DNA binding with Dsp1 protein. dl can activate transcription from zen and twi promoters, and additional Dsp1 inhibits the zen activation and increases the twi activation.
    Dif and dl are functionally redundant in their ability to control Drs gene expression in larvae.
    A linear activation cascade spz-Tl-cact-dl/Dif leads to the induction of the Drs gene in larval fat body cells.
    Dif protein is capable of substituting, to a significant degree, for dl protein in its role in defining the dorsal-ventral axis of the embryo.
    Tl pathway is required for the nuclear import of dl in the immune response, but not required for the nuclear import of Dif. Cytoplasmic retention of both dl and Dif depends on cact protein. The two signalling pathways that target cact for degradation must discriminate between cact-dl and cact-Dif complexes.
    The molecular evolution of the Rel/NF-κB and IκB proteins is studied in parallel. Phylogenetic analysis allows the structure of the putative ancestor genes to be defined and proposes and evolutionary model that clusters both families in a unique Rel/NF-κB/IκB superfamily.
    Deletion analysis reveals the GATA site is necessary for CecA1 expression. Cotransfection analysis demonstrates Dif required an intact GATA site for maximal transactivation of the CecA1 gene.
    Antibacterial genes are not induced in L.boulardi resistant strains of Drosophila suggesting they cannot be involved directly in the antiparasitoid response.
    dl and Dif have distinct DNA-binding characteristics and the proteins can heterodimerise in vitro. Mutants carrying no copies of dl and a single copy of Dif retain their full capacity to express the Dpt and CecA1 genes in response to bacterial challenge.
    Dif is a rel family protein that is thought to function in the humoral immune response.
    Injury or bacterial infection leads to rapid translocation of dl and Dif gene products from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, this translocation is regulated in part by Tl signalling pathway. In direction of increasing cytology: Dif? dl?
    The Dif gene product is a sequence specific transcription factor which trans-activates the CecA1 gene in cotransfection assays. Transactivation requires a 40bp upstream element including an insect κΒ-like motif. dl can also activate the CecA1 promoter, but to a lesser extent and in a less sequence-specific manner than Dif. The dl product exerts a dominant negative effect on Dif transactivation of CecA1.
    18w is involved in the translocation of Dif product into the nuclei of the larval fat body upon infection.
    Dif mediates an immune response in Drosophila larvae. Otherwise cytoplasmic, Dif accumulates in the nucleus upon bacterial infection or injury.
    Once in the nucleus Dif binds to κB-like sequence motifs present in promoter regions of the immunity gene, CecA1.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 94 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Dif
    (Meltzer, 2019-, Meltzer et al., 2019, Palmer et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Garschall and Flatt, 2018, Green et al., 2018, Hao et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Min and Tatar, 2018, Steele et al., 2018, Troha et al., 2018, Wei et al., 2018, Yu et al., 2018, Christesen et al., 2017, Foldi et al., 2017, Kenmoku et al., 2017, Lee et al., 2017, Li et al., 2017, Louradour et al., 2017, Mohr et al., 2017, Park et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Chatterjee et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Di Gregorio et al., 2016, Gao et al., 2016, Kumar et al., 2016, Lamiable et al., 2016, Okuda et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Troutwine et al., 2016, Yadav et al., 2016, Bandarra et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Kanoh et al., 2015, Li and Dijkers, 2015, Liu et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Ward et al., 2015, Wu et al., 2015, Xia et al., 2015, Yamamoto-Hino et al., 2015, Zang et al., 2015, Zhan et al., 2015, Zhou et al., 2015, Carvalho et al., 2014, Chtarbanova et al., 2014, Ferreira et al., 2014, Imler, 2014, Keebaugh and Schlenke, 2014, Kuo and Williams, 2014, Lindsay and Wasserman, 2014, McClure et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Xu and Cherry, 2014, Anjum et al., 2013, Bangi, 2013, Christofi and Apidianakis, 2013, Clark et al., 2013, Gueguen et al., 2013, McIlroy et al., 2013, Morin-Poulard et al., 2013, Nelson et al., 2013, Petersen et al., 2013, Quintin et al., 2013, Shravage et al., 2013, Telonis-Scott et al., 2013, Turner et al., 2013, Bier and Guichard, 2012, Bitra et al., 2012, Eleftherianos and Castillo, 2012, Hamilos et al., 2012, Igboin et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Jones et al., 2012, Kounatidis and Ligoxygakis, 2012, Nakamoto et al., 2012, Pilátová and Dionne, 2012, Rynes et al., 2012, Spokony, 2012.12.12, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Akhouayri et al., 2011, Bou Aoun et al., 2011, Chtarbanova and Imler, 2011, Clark et al., 2011, Fullaondo et al., 2011, Glittenberg et al., 2011, Nehme et al., 2011, Ragab et al., 2011, Valanne et al., 2011, van Uden et al., 2011, Aymeric et al., 2010, Goto et al., 2010, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2010, Kuttenkeuler et al., 2010, Matova and Anderson, 2010, Matskevich et al., 2010, Moule et al., 2010, Nedelsky et al., 2010, Paddibhatla et al., 2010, Sabin et al., 2010, Tanji et al., 2010, Brody, 2009.03, Brown et al., 2009, Buchon et al., 2009, Diangelo et al., 2009, Ha et al., 2009, Jin et al., 2009, Obbard et al., 2009, Towb et al., 2009, Boltz and Carney, 2008, Jones et al., 2008, Kalamarz et al., 2008, Leone et al., 2008, Pal et al., 2008, Ratnaparkhi and Courey, 2008, Ratnaparkhi et al., 2008, Reed et al., 2008, Tan et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Yano et al., 2008, Ayyar et al., 2007, Busse et al., 2007, Copley et al., 2007, Hallem et al., 2007, Junell et al., 2007, Kuranaga and Miura, 2007, Lesch et al., 2007, Matova and Anderson, 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Muse et al., 2007, Muse et al., 2007, Nehme et al., 2007, Tanji et al., 2007, Tsichritzis et al., 2007, Waterhouse et al., 2007, Williams et al., 2007, Wu and Silverman, 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Zeitouni et al., 2007, Bergmann, 2006, Chen, 2006, Chen et al., 2006, Gottar et al., 2006, Kambris et al., 2006, Leclerc et al., 2006, Matova and Anderson, 2006, Minakhina and Steward, 2006, Ryu et al., 2006, Senger et al., 2006, Tang et al., 2006, Xylourgidis et al., 2006, Beramendi et al., 2005, Kim and Lis, 2005, Mace et al., 2005, Thoetkiattikul et al., 2005, Bettencourt et al., 2004, Bischoff et al., 2004, Han et al., 2004, Gobert et al., 2003, Goto et al., 2003, Lau et al., 2003, Minakhina et al., 2003, Park et al., 2003, Uvell and Engstrom, 2003, Avila et al., 2002, Bhattacharya and Steward, 2002, Cornwell et al., 2002, Lehmann et al., 2002, Ligoxygakis et al., 2002, Roxstrom-Lindquist et al., 2002, Rutschmann et al., 2002, Chen et al., 2000, Rutschmann et al., 2000, Lehming et al., 1995)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (410)