General Information
Symbol
Dmel\fng
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
fringe
Annotation Symbol
CG10580
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011591
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
O-fucosylpeptide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (2.4.1.222)
Gene Snapshot
Fringe (Fng) is a glycosyltransferase that modifies EGF domains of N. This glycosylation enhances N interactions with its ligand Dl, and inhibits those with its ligand Ser. In this way Fng modulates Notch signaling. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
fringe, l(3)rG554
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:20,925,891..20,949,512 [-]
Recombination map
3-47
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 31 family. (Q24342)
Protein Domains/Motifs
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Transfers a beta-D-GlcNAc residue from UDP-D-GlcNAc to the fucose residue of a fucosylated protein acceptor (2.4.1.222)
Predictions / Assertions
Transfers a beta-D-GlcNAc residue from UDP-D-GlcNAc to the fucose residue of a fucosylated protein acceptor (2.4.1.222)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
GT31 FAMILY OF BETA-1,3-GALACTOSYLTRANSFERASES -
GT31 family of beta-1,3-galactosyltransferases includes enzymes with glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta-galactosyltransferase activity, which mediate the elongation of O-glycans by adding galactose to a non-reducing O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residue in a beta 1,3 linkage. (Adapted from FBrf0207265 and FBrf0190470).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Glycosyltransferase involved in the elongation of O-linked ligands to activate Notch signaling. Possesses fucose-specific beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity; extends the O-linked fucose on the Notch EGF repeats. Boundary-specific cell-signaling molecule that is responsible for dorsal-ventral cell interactions during wing development.
(UniProt, Q24342)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\fng or the JBrowse view of Dmel\fng for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0078267
1959
412
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.9 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077925
47.0
412
8.08
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\fng using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (28 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000087478
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000087518
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (20 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000087518
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000087518
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR017374
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
fng transcript is expressed 4-5 polar follicle cell precursor cells in stage 1-4 egg chambers, and later in the 2 polar cells that emerge from the prepolar group.
fng transcript is expressed in follicle cells starting in germarium region 2b. Expression is detected in anterior and posterior follicle cells in stage S2-S4, in all follicle cells in stage S5, in anterior and posterior polar follicle cells in stage S6-S9. At stage S10, expression is detected in all follicle cells except anterior-dorsal follicle cells.
fng is first detected in the wing disc in second instar larvae where it is restricted to the dorsal region of the disc. Expression remains in the dorsal part of the wing disc through the first half of the third instar after which some weak expression begins to appear in ventral regions outside of the wing pouch. In addition, fng expression is lost in some regions that will give rise to the notum. By the end of third instar, expression is lost in some dorsal regions within the wing pouch and becomes strong in proximal regions of the ventral wing.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Epitope-tagged fng protein localizes to the Golgi apparatus.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\fng in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 43 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of fng
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
insertion of mobile activating element
Name
Expression Data
miscellaneous insertions
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of fng
Allele of fng
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of fng
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
filamentous actin & denticle field primordium
leg & joint, with Scer\GAL4Dll-md23
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
13 of 15
No
Yes
 
10 of 15
No
Yes
 
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (13)
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909W7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DKK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0GH5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0GHR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08XO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    RNA-RNA
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-47
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:20,925,891..20,949,512 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    78A1-78A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}trblEP3519 and P{EP}fngEP3082&P{lacW}skdL7062
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    78A1-78A2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    78A-78A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (25)
    Genomic Clones (27)
    cDNA Clones (41)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: fng l(3)rG554
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Glycosylation of the N protein domain 'EGF12' is necessary for fng to inhibit the activation of N signalling by Ser but is not necessary for Ser binding to N.
    fng is required via N activation od an ap dependent affinity difference at the dorsal ventral restriction boundary in the wing disc.
    Interacts genetically with 'eyeful' mutant though it is not yet clear whether 'eyeful' corresponds to lola or psq.
    fng plays a key role in positioning N activation during early oogenesis. fng is required cell-autonomously in the somatic polar cells for follicle formation and also for polar cell fate. fng is required non-autonomously to define the number and organization of stalk cells.
    The glycosyltransferase activity of fng modulates N-Dl interactions.
    fng seems to function in peripodial cells during eye development.
    fng and N form a complex through both the Lin-Notch repeats and the epidermal growth factor repeats 22-36.
    The glycosyltransferase activity of fng modifies N.
    fng does not exert its effect outside the cell, but rather acts in the golgi apparatus, apparently as a glycosyltransferase.
    fng is essential in oogenesis for the proper formation of the egg chamber and for epithelial morphogenesis.
    fng protein does not detectably affect the ligand-receptor interactions of the N pathway in cultured cells.
    Local activation of N is necessary and sufficient to promote the formation of joints between segments of the leg. This segmentation process requires the participation of Ser, Dl and fng.
    fng plays a key role in dorsal-ventral compartmentalization in the wing disc, primarily by positioning a stripe of N activation, but fng may also exert additional influences on compartmentalization.
    The boundary of fng expression in the developing eye, with the subsequent implications for N signalling, is crucial for the induction of dorso-ventral mirror symmetry and eye morphogenesis.
    The regulated expression pattern of fng is essential for eye growth and formation of the equator. Boundaries of fng expression determine where N will be activated.
    ap mediates cell interactions across the DV axis of the wing by regulating the expression of Ser and fng. In ap mutants the wing is lost, this phenotype can be rescued by ectopic expression of either Ser or fng and the resulting wings have both dorsal and ventral cell fates.
    Ser does not signal in the dorsal regions of the developing imaginal wing disc due to the action of the fng gene product. Ectopic expression studies reveal the regulation of Ser by fng occurs at the level of protein and not Ser transcription.
    fng can suppress the ability of SerBd-3 to antagonize Dl during neurogenesis.
    Ser and Dl maintain each other's expression in the wing by a positive feedback loop. fng functions to position and restrict this feedback loop to the developing dorsal-ventral boundary.
    fng and Ser are distinct components of a single ap-regulated cell recognition and signal induction mechanism. Clonal analysis demonstrates that fng serves as a boundary-determining molecule such that Ser is induced wherever cells expressing fng and cells not expressing fng are juxtaposed.
    fng encodes a boundary-specific cell-signalling molecule that is responsible for dorsal-ventral cell interactions during wing development.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 39 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0011797
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (352)