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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\fra
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
frazzled
Annotation Symbol
CG8581
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011592
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
frazzled (fra) encodes a DCC-like Netrin receptor that mediates axon guidance. It also contributes to dendrite guidance, development and morphogenesis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
DCC
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:12,529,053..12,564,184 [+]
Recombination map
2-67
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Ig superfamily - functions as a Netrin receptor in axon pathfinding - promotes growth cone attachment at the source of a Netrin gradient in the visual system
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\fra or the JBrowse view of Dmel\fra for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087822
6320
1526
FBtr0087821
5867
1375
FBtr0339649
6293
1517
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.318, 5.865 (compiled cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086935
168.8
1526
6.49
FBpp0086934
151.7
1375
6.54
FBpp0308711
167.7
1517
6.25
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1526, 1375 (aa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\fra using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (24 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:M9MRI4
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR033024
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:M9MRI4
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24567,UniProtKB:Q24568
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:M9MRI4
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:M9MRI4
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR033024
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR033024
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24567,UniProtKB:Q24568
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR033024
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:2701
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
fra transcripts are abundantly expressed in the CNS and the gut epithelium.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
fra protein is expressed in the pupal retina and medulla. In the retina, the protein is detected in the cell body of photoreceptor R8 cells at 24h APF. After that it is detected in the R8 rhadbomere. Transient expression in rhabdomeres R1-R6 is also seen at 42h APF. In the medulla, fra accumulates at the distal border at 24-42h APF, where R8 axons temporarily pause. After that it localises to medulla layer M3, the layer targeted by R8 axons. Weak expression persists in adults. Expression of fra is also detected in glial cell subtypes in the adult medulla and lamina.
fra protein is expressed on developing axons and epithelia in the embyro. It is detected at high levels on commissural and longitudinal axons and at lower levels on peripheral motor axons that extend outward in the segmental and intersegmental nerves. It is also detected on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells and on epidermis.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q24567,UniProtKB:Q24568
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\fra in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 27 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of fra
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of fra
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
commissure & embryo & axon
pCC neuron & axon
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
 
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900TA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500DR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0658 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X060T )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G098C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-67
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:12,529,053..12,564,184 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    49A10-49B3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG8569EP1182 and P{EP}AmphEP2175&P{lacW}spt4k05316
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    49B-49B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (16)
    Genomic Clones (31)
    cDNA Clones (78)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Expression of fra in R cells is not sufficient to alter target layer specificity.
    fra is directly activated by en.
    The growth cone response (attractive) is determined by the cytoplasmic domain of fra.
    fra contributes to long range, but not short range, Netrin-mediated repulsion.
    fra protein can capture Netrin protein (encoded by NetA and NetB) and "present" it for recognition by other receptors.
    The cytoplasmic domain of the guidance receptor fra can determine the growth cones' response in vivo, mediating attraction independently of the ectodomain and its particular ligand binding.
    The fra gene product is required in the target for attracting retinal fibers in the developing visual system. fra is not required for the differentiation of cells in the target.
    One EMS induced allele was identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.
    fra is required for Netrin-mediated attraction, but not repulsion.
    fra encodes a DDC-related (deleted in colorectal cancer) protein. fra is expressed on axons in the developing nervous system as well as on a variety of epithelia. Null mutations in fra disrupt axon guidance in the central nervous system and motor axon pathfinding and target recognition in the periphery. fra functions cell autonomously raising the possibility that it encodes a receptor or part of a receptor mediating Netrin-dependent guidance.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (228)