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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Mef2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Myocyte enhancer factor 2
Annotation Symbol
CG1429
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011656
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (Mef2) encodes a protein that belongs to the MADS-box family of transcription factors and is required for muscle development. It directly activates a large number of muscle protein genes. It also regulates gene expression in other tissues, including the fat body and neural tissue. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
Dmef2, D-mef2, Myocyte enhancing factor 2, Mef-2, Dmef
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:9,913,496..9,958,858 [-]
Recombination map
2-61
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the MEF2 family. (P40791)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MADS-BOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The MADS box transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They have a conserved MADS-box motif. The N-terminal half of the motif has the DNA-binding specificity while the C-terminal half required for dimerisation. MADS-box proteins specifically recruit other transcription factors into multi-component regulatory complexes. (Adapted from PMID:7744019).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Transcription factor that could be a key player in early mesoderm differentiation and may be required for subsequent cell fate specifications within the somatic and visceral/heart mesodermal layers (PubMed:7839146, PubMed:8052612, PubMed:8202544). Essential for myoblast fusion and consequently muscle formation in adults (PubMed:25797154). During embryonic and pupal development, binds to the enhancer of the myoblast fusion gene sing and activates its transcription (PubMed:25797154).
(UniProt, P40791)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - mads box - regulates muscle differentiation - Tinman and Pannier activate and collaborate with Myocyte enhancer factor-2 to promote heart cell fate
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
7
Number of Unique Polypeptides
7

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Mef2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Mef2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Stop-codon suppression (UAG) postulated; FBrf0216885.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.49
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088444
3235
516
FBtr0088446
3214
509
FBtr0088445
5854
515
FBtr0088443
3690
540
FBtr0088447
6040
501
FBtr0330707
5240
511
FBtr0330708
3908
606
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.6 (northern blot)
3.5 (northern blot)
4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087530
54.4
516
7.33
FBpp0087532
53.6
509
7.57
FBpp0087531
54.2
515
7.57
FBpp0087529
57.2
540
7.91
FBpp0089303
53.3
501
8.25
FBpp0303550
54.3
511
7.57
FBpp0303551
63.8
606
7.96
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
540, 516, 515, 509 (aa)
515 (aa); 54 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Mef2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002278664
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002100
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002278664
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000235373
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000235373
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000235373
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000235373
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000235373
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002278664
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000235373
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Mef2 are detected throughout embryogenesis on northern blots with the highest levels in 4-8 and 8-12 hr embryos. Transcripts are first detected by in situ hybridization in the mesoderm primordium in stage 5 embryos. The expression is not uniform but occurs in a pair rule-like pattern of seven stripes. In stages 7 and 8, Mef2 expression occurs throughout the mesoderm. By stages 8 and 9, the pattern becomes very dynamic. Expression is higher in the dorsal region of the mesoderm than ventrally. By stage 9, patches of expression are seen in the dorsal region of the mesoderm with stripes that extend back toward the midline. In stages 10 and 11, expression is also observed in isolated groups of cells that may be heart precursors in one case, and somatic muscle founder cells in another. By stage 11, prominent expression is seen in progenitors of the visceral musculature and in cells that may contribute to the fat body. Later, Mef2 expression is observed in all muscle types. It is expressed in the three major groups of somatic muscles, the dorsal, lateral and ventral. It is expressed in the pharyngeal muscles of the head and in the visceral muscles of the esophagus, foregut, midgut and hindgut. It is also expressed in the heart in the cardioblasts but not in the pericardial cells. The expression pattern of Mef2 was compared to that of twi.
Mef2 transcripts are first detected in the ventral furrow during gastrulation. During germ band extension, Mef2 transcripts are limited to the mesodermal layer. In early stage 10 embryos, transcripts are in a single layer of mesoderm in cells that will give rise to pharyngeal muscle. Later in stage 10, the mesoderm separates into two cell layers. Mef2 transcripts are expressed in both the inner layer that gives rise to visceral muscle and heart precursor cells and the outer layer which gives rise to the somatic musculature. Expression is also high in pharyngeal muscle precursors. During germ band retraction, transcripts remain at high levels in the somatic musculature but decline in the visceral muscle and heart precursor cells. In late embryos, transcripts are observed in the somatic musculature and in the dorsal vessel but not in other mesoderm derivatives. Little or no Mef2 expression is observed in stage 11-12 sna or twi mutant embryos.
Mef2 transcripts are first detected in 0-4hr embryos, remain at significant levels throughout embryogenesis, decrease during larval stages, and increase during pupal stages. Transcripts are first detected at late cellular blastoderm stage and are expressed in all mesodermal cells after invagination. After dorsal migration of the mesodermal layer, expression is restricted to visceral muscle and heart primordia. Later expression is observed in heart precursors and then becomes prominant sequentially in visceral and somatic muscles. Mef2 expression is absent in twi mutant embryos and is only observed at low levels in germ band extended sna mutant embryos.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Significantly higher levels of Mef2 expression are detected in s-LNv neurons towards the end of the night (ZT21) than the end of day (ZT9), but levels remain the same if the animals are kept in dark-dark conditions.
Mef2 protein is expressed in all contractile cells of the embryonic dorsal vessel
All myoblasts in the embryonic dorsal vessel express Mef2 protein.
Mef2 labels 6 cardioblasts per hemisegment in stage 13 embryos.
Mef2 protein is localized to the nuclei of all embryonic somatic and visceral muscle cells and muscle cell precursors.
Mef2 is present in the nuclei of all muscular dorsal vessel cells of the embryo. A repeating pattern of six pairs of Mef2-positive cardial cells per segment was seen in the larval heart and each ostium is flanked closely by two of these cells.
Mef2 protein expression is detected throughout the mesoderm during germ band extension. After subdivision of the mesoderm, expression is observed in the cephalic mesoderm and in the primordia for the somatic and visceral musculature. Throughout germ band retraction and in older embryos, Mef2 protein expression persists in the visceral and pharyngeal musculature, as well as in the cardial cells and is detected in segmentally repeating groups of forming somatic muscles.
Mef2 expression is first detected in mesodermal cells in the ventral furrow during cellular blastoderm. During germband extension, it is expressed throughout the mesoderm. From stage 11, it is expressed in all of the muscle precursor cells as well as in the cardioblast cells. Expression becomes restricted to muscle cells and marks all of the muscle cells and their descendents in the embryo.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4-Mef2.R}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{IIA237-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{MB-Switch}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Mef2-GAL4.5xCD}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Mef2-GAL4.247}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Mef2-lacZ.5}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
embryonic myoblast | segmentally repeated

Comment: expression levels substantially decreased at stage 15

Reporter: P{Mef2-lacZ.I.N}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Mef2-lacZ.II.N}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Mef2-lacZ.mE}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Mef2-lacZ.mtin1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Mef2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (83)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907GR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505TD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05RR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X05NO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0F9N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 4 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map
2-61
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:9,913,496..9,958,858 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
46C4-46C7
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k07803k07803&P{lacW}l(2)k08816k08816 and P{lacW}l(2)k08601k08601
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
46C1-46C2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
46B12-46C12
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
46C-46C
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Complementation data from unspecified deficiency chromosomes.
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (44)
Genomic Clones (28)
cDNA Clones (140)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: Mef2 l(2)46CFr
Source for merge of: Mef2 BEST:SD04091
Additional comments
Source for merge of Mef2 BEST:SD04091 was a shared cDNA ( date:030206 ).
Other Comments
Mef2 is required for myoblast fusion and for the initiation of muscle structural gene expression during adult myogenesis.
Adult myogenesis can proceed independently of Mef2, since Mef2 mutant adults are capable of forming muscle tissue.
ChEST reveals Mef2 auto-regulates its own transcription.
Lateral transverse muscles of the thorax contain more Mef2 positive nuclei than those of the abdomen.
Mef2 transcription is controlled by a complex enhancer 5.8kb upstream of the gene, containing 2 tin binding sites. tin has an essential role in activation of Mef2 transcription in multiple myogenic lineages.
There is a Mef2 activity range compatible with proper muscle differentiation in the embryo. Distinct Mef2 protein thresholds are required for different properties within a muscle cell and also for different cells within a muscle type and for different muscle types.
Different Mef2 isoforms function equivalently both when overexpressed and in rescuing the Mef2 mutant phenotype.
Mef2 is required for the normal patterning and differentiation of the centripetally migrating follicle cells that are crucial for the development of the anterior chorionic structures.
Mef2 plays a role in the regulation of expression of tkv.
Mef2 regulates mbl where they are coexpressed.
Mef2 function is required for splitting of the larval oblique muscles that form the templates of the adult dorsal longitudinal indirect flight muscles.
twi protein directly regulates Mef2 expression in adult somatic muscle precursor cells via a 175bp enhancer located 2245bp upstream of the Mef2 transcriptional start site. Activation of Mef2 transcription via this enhancer by twi protein is essential for normal adult muscle development.
An upstream enhancer containing two tin binding sites is required for Mef2 expression in the developing heart.
Results suggest Pdp1 may function as part of a large protein/DNA complex that interacts with Mef2 to regulate muscle gene transcription.
Tm2 is a target gene for Mef2 regulation, proximal and distal muscle enhancers within the first intron of Tm2 contain a Mef2 binding site. Mef2 is a positive regulator of Tm2 gene transcription that is necessary but not sufficient for high level expression in somatic muscle of the embryo, larva and adult.
Connections between motoneurons and muscles are formed in the absence of Mef2 function, but further differentiation of these contacts into mature neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) fails. The development of normal synaptic contacts with localised active zones appears to depend on properties of differentiating muscles that are absent in Mef2 mutant embryos.
Expression of Mef2 in the brain suggests a role in neuronal cell differentiation. Separable enhancer elements direct Mef2 expression in myogenic and neuronal cell lineages.
The role of Mef2 is characterised using genetic mutations that result in loss of Mef2 function. In Mef2- embryos somatic mesoderm is formed normally and somatic muscle precursor cells initiate development, but continuing differentiation of the precursors into multinucleate muscle fibres requires Mef2 function. This can be rescued by providing exogenous Mef2 activity in the somatic mesoderm indicating that Mef2 function is essential for myogenesis. Midgut morphogenesis and late heart differentiation are also affected in Mef2 mutants.
Mef2 is required for differentiation of somatic, cardiac and visceral muscle cells, though not for the specification and positioning of myoblasts.
Gel mobility shift assays have revealed a Mef2 binding site in Tm1 gene proximal enhancer.
In the somatic muscle lineage Mef2 is required for both the formation and patterning of body wall muscle. Mef2 is also involved in the regulation of muscle specific gene expression in the dorsal vessel and midgut.
In the absence of Mef2 activity the midgut exhibits an abnormal bloated morphology. The midgut defect correlates with the absence of αPS2 integrin gene expression and suggests a regulatory relationship between Mef2 and the if locus which encodes this integrin subunit.
Mef2 is required for both the formation and patterning of the body wall muscle. Mutants show extensive apoptosis among the myoblast cell population. Morphogenesis of the dorsal vessel proceeds normally, but the myosin genes are not expressed. Mutants also exhibit an abnormal midgut morphology, which correlates with absence of if gene expression. Rare transheterozygous mutant survivors cannot fly.
Mef2 is the only known gene expressed in both the segregating primordia and the differentiated cells of the somatic, visceral and heart musculature.
Identification: Isolated from a 4 to 8 hour Drosophila embryo cDNA library, using a fragment encoding the DNA-binding and dimerisation domain of Xenopus SL-1, under low stringency conditions.
Mef2 is a downstream target of twi.
Temporal and spatial expression pattern of Mef2 suggests the gene product may play an important role in commitment of mesoderm to myogenic lineages.
Mef2 may have a function in early mesoderm differentiation and may be required for subsequent cell fate specifications within the somatic and visceral/heart mesodermal layers.
Complementation group identified in an EMS and DEB screen to isolate deficiencies that uncover Jra.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 93 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (46)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
BEST:SD04091
DMEF-2
Mef2
(Adhikari et al., 2019, Shih et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Arganda-Carreras et al., 2018, Bischof et al., 2018, Boukhatmi and Bray, 2018, Calap-Quintana et al., 2018, Cho et al., 2018, Croset et al., 2018, Drechsler et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Monnier et al., 2018, Richardson and Portela, 2018, Schwarz et al., 2018, Arredondo et al., 2017, Erceg et al., 2017, Khoueiry et al., 2017, Mattila and Hietakangas, 2017, Nie et al., 2017, Prince and Rand, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Atkins et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Kwon et al., 2016, Mbodj et al., 2016, Yadav et al., 2016, Baëza et al., 2015, Dequéant et al., 2015, Doggett et al., 2015, Firdaus et al., 2015, Monfort and Furlong, 2015.1.15, Schertel et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Bargiela et al., 2014, Caine et al., 2014, Cao et al., 2014, Erceg et al., 2014, Fedotov et al., 2014, Ghavi-Helm et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Lee et al., 2014, Rembold et al., 2014, Slattery et al., 2014, Spletter and Schnorrer, 2014, Tipping and Perrimon, 2014, Vrailas-Mortimer et al., 2014, Clark et al., 2013, de Celis et al., 2013.9.11, Demontis et al., 2013, Ettensohn, 2013, Gisselbrecht et al., 2013, Johnson et al., 2013, Mirzoyan and Pandur, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Sivachenko et al., 2013, Tixier et al., 2013, Yamamoto-Hino and Goto, 2013, Ahmad et al., 2012, Bonn et al., 2012, Bonn et al., 2012, Bryantsev et al., 2012, Busser et al., 2012, Busser et al., 2012, Caldeira et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2012, Fieni et al., 2012, Garcia et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Matzat et al., 2012, Pallavi et al., 2012, Soler et al., 2012, Spedale et al., 2012, Steiner et al., 2012, Stojnic et al., 2012, Sun et al., 2012, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Albrecht et al., 2011, Benchabane et al., 2011, Benchabane et al., 2011, Grigorian et al., 2011, Hornbruch-Freitag et al., 2011, Johnson et al., 2011, Jungreis, 2011.11.18, Liu and Geisbrecht, 2011, Ozdemir et al., 2011, Park et al., 2011, Pruteanu-Malinici et al., 2011, Vrailas-Mortimer et al., 2011, Weake et al., 2011, Xin et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Bernard et al., 2010, Blanchard et al., 2010, Bulchand et al., 2010, Cunha et al., 2010, Enriquez et al., 2010, Eriksson et al., 2010, Figeac et al., 2010, Honkela et al., 2010, Neely et al., 2010, Reim and Frasch, 2010, Wilczyński and Furlong, 2010, Bahri et al., 2009, Bernard et al., 2009, Boettiger and Levine, 2009, Guerin and Kramer, 2009, Guruharsha et al., 2009, Klingseisen et al., 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Leal et al., 2009, Lovato et al., 2009, Schulze et al., 2009, Soler and Taylor, 2009, Urbano et al., 2009, Zinzen et al., 2009, Choi et al., 2008, Cripps et al., 2008, Geisbrecht et al., 2008, Hudson et al., 2008, Santiago-Martínez et al., 2008, Tanaka et al., 2008, Tögel et al., 2008, Yi et al., 2008, Chanana et al., 2007, Christensen and Cook, 2007.5.8, Dietzl et al., 2007, Gabut et al., 2007, Kaltenbach et al., 2007, Lo et al., 2007, Nguyen et al., 2007, Potthoff and Olson, 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Stark et al., 2007, Toledano-Katchalski et al., 2007, Albrecht et al., 2006, Davidson and Erwin, 2006, de Velasco et al., 2006, Liu et al., 2006, Molnar et al., 2006, Nguyen and Frasch, 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Santiago-Martinez et al., 2006, Sellin et al., 2006, Taylor, 2006, Yi, 2006, Zaffran et al., 2006, Lovato et al., 2005, Mandal et al., 2004, Popichenko and Paululat, 2004, Loren et al., 2003, Gim et al., 2001)
l(2)46CFr
Name Synonyms
Complementation group C
Drosophila myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2
Drosophila-myocyte enhancer factor 2
Group C
Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2
Myocyte Enhancing Factor 2
Myocyte-enhancer factor 2
Myocyte-enhancer factor-2
Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2
myocyte enhancer factor-2
myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0010437
  • FBgn0019710
  • FBgn0047353
Datasets (2)
Study focus (2)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
  • bait_protein
ChIP-chip identification of binding sites for transcription factors that regulate mesodermal development.
  • bait_protein
ChIP-Seq profiling of histone modifications in purified embryonic mesodermal cells.
References (601)