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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\insc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
inscuteable
Annotation Symbol
CG11312
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011674
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
inscuteable (insc) encodes an adaptor protein required for asymmetric cell division. It interacts with the microtubule binding protein encoded by mud and the adaptor encoded by pins. It also binds to the apical complex proteins encoded by baz, par-6 and aPKC and may recruit microtubule binding proteins to the apical cell cortex to induce apical-basal spindle orientation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

nem, fam, l(2)05475

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:20,821,262..20,836,028 [-]
Recombination map

2-92

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:20821262..20836028
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (18 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Summary (Interactive Fly)

novel protein - SH3 binding domain, ankyrin repeats and cytoskeletal attachment domain - controller of cell fate during asymmetric cell division

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\insc or the JBrowse view of Dmel\insc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Shares 5' UTR with upstream gene.

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071562
3887
859
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.3 (northern blot)

4.2 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071490
95.0
859
6.68
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

767 (aa); 84 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\insc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 3-12 hr AEL

Comment: reference states 4-20 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

insc transcript is detected in 4-20 hr embryos, and in adult male and female flies. insc transcript is first detected during the cellular blastoderm stage within the procephalic neurogenic region. The region of expression extends dorsally at stage 6/7. Expression is subsequently detected in individual cells within the embryonic brain until late embryogenesis. During germ band extension, insc transcript expression is detected in the neurectoderm, and in early germ band extended embryos, the full wave of delaminating neuroblasts express insc transcript. In the developing CNS, most, if not all, neuroblasts express insc. Transient expression in some putative PNS precursors (external sense organ precursors and Ich5 precursor) is detected in 5 hr embryos. No CNS expression is detected after stage 14 of embryogenesis.

insc RNA is localized to the apical cortex of neuroblasts during interphase. During mitosis, it is located in the cytoplasm.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term

plasma membrane | apical & proximal to

cytoplasm

Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

insc protein localizes to the apical end of GMC1-1.

raps protein and insc protein colocalize during the neuroblast cell cycle except in delaminating neuroblasts at which time insc protein is detected in the apical stalks of neuroblasts and raps protein is not detected.

insc protein is first detected at stage 6 in the procephalic neurectoderm and later in the delaminating neuroblasts of the ventral nerve cord. At late stage 10, insc protein is detected in two cells per segment in the lateral epidermis that are thought to be the first two cells that will give rise to the larval peripheral sense organs. Expression is lost in developing sense organs by the time of dorsal closure but remains in the CNS until after it has condensed. In stages 10-13, expression is seen in mesodermal cells presumed to be muscle precursors and in the posterior midgut primordia. Strong expression is seen at stage 15 in the pharynx, gastric caecae, hindgut, tracheal branches, and Malpighian tubules. insc protein is also detected in pupal wing discs older than about 20hr after puparium formation. It is present in the intervein spaces and is excluded from the veins themselves.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}inscMz1407
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZ}inscAB44
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\insc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 35 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 38 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of insc
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of insc
Deletions and Duplications ( 12 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal ventral sensillum campaniformium vc1 & thecogen cell
abdominal ventral sensillum campaniformium vc2 & thecogen cell
abdominal ventral sensillum campaniformium vc3 & thecogen cell
abdominal ventral sensillum campaniformium vc4a & thecogen cell
abdominal ventral sensillum campaniformium vc4b & thecogen cell
embryonic neuroblast & spindle
mitotic domain 9 & spindle
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903DL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501WC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01S0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01PU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-92

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:20,821,262..20,836,028 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    57B3-57B3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k06409k06409&P{PZ}insc05475 and P{PZ}l(2)0780607806
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    57B1-57B4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    57B1-57B4
    57B1-57B20
    57B1-57B5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    57B-57B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    57B-57B
    57B1--3 57B1--5 57B2--3 57B3--5
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (28)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (26)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments

      The complementation group previously identified as 'fam' corresponds to the sktl/insc locus. Until it is demonstrated to be otherwise, all alleles previously represented as alleles of 'fam' are now recorded as alleles of both insc and sktl.

      Other Comments

      insc has a role in augmenting metaphase spindle length in embryonic neuroblasts.

      insc regulates the apical-basal polarity of the pIIb division in the vp1-vp4a lineages in the embryo.

      mira and insc are required for the correct cortical location of pros protein in NB6-4T.

      The central third of the insc coding region is sufficient for the normal glia-neuron cell-fate choice of the NB6-4T daughter cell.

      Embryos deficient for insc function show failure of spindle rotation in neuroblasts.

      raps and insc might orient asymmetric cell divisions by localising or locally modulating a heterotrimeric G-protein signalling cascade at the apical cell cortex.

      Apical localisation of insc protein in embryonic neuroblasts requires baz.

      Localisation of insc protein depends on baz.

      The correct positioning of numb protein and proper orientation of division in ganglion mother cells requires insc.

      Asymmetrical segregation of numb protein into one of the sibling cells produced by division of muscle progenitor cells depends on insc, and is essential for the specification of distinct sibling cell fates.

      Extrinsic and intrinsic cues and microfilaments regulate the subcellular localisation of the pros, insc and stau proteins in neuroblasts.

      insc and stau mediate asymmetric localization and segregation of pros RNA during neuroblast cell divisions. insc nucleates an apical complex and is required for protein localization, spindle orientation and RNA localization.

      Mutant embryos show lack of muscles without disturbance of myoblast fusion or epidermis pattern.

      insc is a neural precursor gene and encodes a candidate for a cytoskeletal adaptor protein.

      Ectopic expression of insc in other epithelial cells leads to spindle reorientation.

      Orientation of the mitotic spindle and correct localisation of numb and pros in basal daughter cells requires insc.

      insc may be required for the development of the somatic musculature and the chordotonal organs of the PNS, but it is not involved in the development of the visceral mesoderm and the dorsal vessel.

      The CNS and PNS of insc mutants are morphologically abnormal, resulting from general disorganization of the neuroblast array and defective neuroblast morphology and abnormal sense organ morphology. The numbers of particular neuroblasts, and their ganglion mother cell progeny, are also faulty.

      The insc product may affect cytoskeletal organization and/or asymmetric division of neuronal precursors.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 45 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      l(2)k12405
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010601
      • FBgn0013468
      • FBgn0015387
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (352)