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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\byn
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
brachyenteron
Annotation Symbol
CG7260
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011723
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
brachyenteron (byn) encodes a T-domain transcriptional activator that acts in developmental specification, in particular it specifies posterior gut structures and a subset of posteriorly derived visceral muscles. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
Trg
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:11,927,693..11,935,919 [+]
Recombination map
3-37
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
T-BOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The T-box transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding immunoglobulin-fold domain of 180-200 amino acids, known as T-box, named after its founding member, the mouse T protein. (Adapted from FBrf0218841).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the specification of the hindgut and anal pads.
(UniProt, P55965)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - brachyury homolog - essential for the development of hindgut, anal pads and Malpighian tubules - mediates specification of caudalbvisceral mesoderm
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\byn or the JBrowse view of Dmel\byn for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0332070
2618
697
FBtr0332071
2650
599
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.6 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0304380
72.1
697
7.17
FBpp0304381
62.2
599
8.31
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\byn using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:98472
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001681641
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001681641
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001681641
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001681641
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000137774
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
At stage 5, byn expression overlaps the expression domains of dpp (dorsal surface plus poles) and brk (ventral surface).
Transcription of byn commences at the beginning of embryonic cycle 14 in the posterior terminal region from 0-20% egg length. During cellularization, transcripts recede from the pole and become confined to a ring of cells of which the ventral cells form the posterior part of the ventral furrow, while the dorsal and lateral cells form the primordia of the proctodeum and anal pads. The dorsal and lateral cells are internalized by the amnioproctodeal invagination during gastrulation. The proctodeum continues to express byn during germ band extension. Expression is maintained in the hindgut and anal pads until the end of embryogenesis.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
byn protein is first detected in the blastoderm in a ring of cells mostly comprising the proctodeal primordium and in the primordia of the anal pads and the hindgut. During germ band extension, the protein is confined to the proctodeum. In the fully retracted germ band, it is found in the hindgut and anal pads.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\byn in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 9 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of byn
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of byn
Deletions and Duplications ( 8 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (19)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (20)
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906OS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505UR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03SD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03PK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05OC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-37
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:11,927,693..11,935,919 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    68E3-68E3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}CycA02461&P{PZ}CycA03946 and P{PZ}rols08232&P{lacW}l(3)j2D3j2D3
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    68D-68E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (6)
    Genomic Clones (34)
    cDNA Clones (3)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          BDGP DGC clones
            Other clones
              RNAi and Array Information
              Linkouts
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              Antibody Information
              Laboratory Generated Antibodies
               
              Commercially Available Antibodies
               
              Other Information
              Relationship to Other Genes
              Source for database identify of
              Source for identity of: byn CG7260
              Source for database merge of
              Additional comments
              Other Comments
              byn injected into Xenopus embryos exhibits a strong endoderm-inducing activity.
              byn, supported by fkh, mediates the early specification of the caudal visceral mesoderm along with zfh1. The functions of byn in the mesoderm of Drosophila are comparable to the roles of the vertebrate Brachyury genes during gastrulation.
              Like zfh1, byn is required for the migration of the caudal visceral mesoderm, but unlike zfh1, it is not required for gonadal mesoderm development.
              cad acts in hindgut development through fog, fkh and wg, but does not play a role in activating tll, hkb, byn and bowl which are also required for proper hindgut development. cad, fkh, byn and wg constitute a conserved constellation of genes that plays a required role in gastrulation and gut development.
              Phenotypic analysis demonstrates byn is required to regulate specific gene activity in the primordia of the anal pads and hindgut. In the absence of byn activity, programmed cell death occurs in the primordia resulting in reduced and abnormal anal pads and hindgut. byn is also required for the formation of midgut restrictions and elongation of the Malpighian tubules. tll is necessary and sufficient to activate byn.
              byn plays a key role in the development of tissues derived from the proctodeum.
              byn is involved in the specification of the hindgut and anal pads and is a target for regulation by tll and hkb.
              byn is required for specification of the hindgut and anal pads.
              Product is detected by an antibody against the mouse T gene.
              Origin and Etymology
              Discoverer
              Etymology
              The mutant phenotype and the similarity of the encoded gene product to the vertebrate Brachyury protein caused the gene named to be changed from "Trg" to "brachyenteron" ("byn"), or "short gut".
              Identification
              External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 31 )
              Sequence Crossreferences
              NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
              GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
              GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
              RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
              UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              Other crossreferences
              BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
              Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
              Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
              KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
              modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
              Linkouts
              BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
              DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
              FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
              FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
              Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
              InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
              Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
              Datasets (0)
              Study focus (0)
              Experimental Role
              Project
              Project Type
              Title
              References (97)