Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Dp
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
DP transcription factor
Annotation Symbol
CG4654
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011763
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
DP transcription factor (Dp) encodes a member of the DREAM complex and the common subunit of the two Drosophila heterodimeric E2F transcription factors. It is regulated by the product of Rbf and the Cyclin dependent kinases and controls the transcription of genes necessary for cell cycle progression. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
dDP, l(2)vr10, DP1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:13,222,433..13,228,202 [+]
Recombination map
2-68
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the E2F/DP family. (Q24318)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The E2F/DP family of transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. The functional E2F are transcriptional heterodimers composed of two subunits, E2F and DP. (Adapted from FBrf0128583).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Component of the DREAM complex, a multiprotein complex that can both act as a transcription activator or repressor depending on the context. In follicle cells, the complex plays a central role in the site-specific DNA replication at the chorion loci. During development, the complex represses transcription of developmentally controlled E2F target genes. Can stimulate E2F-dependent transcription.
(UniProt, Q24318)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Dp or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Dp for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087740
2526
445
FBtr0087741
2448
441
FBtr0333149
1913
417
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.2 (longest cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086853
49.7
445
6.75
FBpp0086854
49.2
441
6.68
FBpp0305354
46.7
417
6.61
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
445 (aa); 50 (kD observed)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Heterodimer of E2f and Dp. Cooperate to give sequence-specific DNA binding and optimal trans-activation. Component of the DREAM complex at least composed of Myb, Caf1, mip40, mip120, mip130, E2f2, Dp, Rbf, Rbf2, lin-52, Rpd3 and l(3)mbt.
(UniProt, Q24318)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Dp using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (18 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Rbf; FB:FBgn0015799
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:E2f1; FB:FBgn0011766
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:E2f1; FB:FBgn0011766
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Rbf; FB:FBgn0015799
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Rbf2; FB:FBgn0038390
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000284480
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000284480
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
In syncytial embryos, Dp transcripts are clumped around migrating nuclei. Upon cellularization, they become localized below the nuclei. In early gastrulation, Dp transcripts are localized fairly uniformly and at later stages of germ band extension, they are apparent mainly in regions with dividing cells. In later embryonic stages, Dp expression is confined to the nervous system. Dp transcripts are restricted to proliferating cells in later developmental stages as well. Dp transcripts are observed in the third instar larval brain Dp transcripts are observed in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion. They are observed in leg discs and in antennal discs. In eye discs, expression is observed anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, in a stripe just behind it, and at a lower level over the rest of the disc. Expression is also observed in the testis through the spermatocyte growing stages.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Dp in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Dp
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Dp
Deletions and Duplications ( 24 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
anterior midgut proper primordium & S phase
eye (with Dpa1)
eye (with Dpa2)
follicle cell & nucleus
head & macrochaeta
heterochromatin & nurse cell, with Dpa2
heterochromatin & nurse cell, with Dphs.PD
heterochromatin & nurse cell (with Df(2R)vg56)
nuclear membrane & nurse cell (with Df(2R)vg56)
nurse cell & actin filament | germ-line clone
thorax & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908XR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150A0J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0B8H )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0B66 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0AVY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Heterodimer of E2f and Dp. Cooperate to give sequence-specific DNA binding and optimal trans-activation. Component of the DREAM complex at least composed of Myb, Caf1, mip40, mip120, mip130, E2f2, Dp, Rbf, Rbf2, lin-52, Rpd3 and l(3)mbt.
    (UniProt, Q24318 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-68
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:13,222,433..13,228,202 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    49F10-49F11
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG33182EP728&P{lacW}Aats-valk14804 and P{EP}DpEP358
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    49F-49F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    50A1-50A4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (26)
    Genomic Clones (17)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (291)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in aberrantly long spindles when assayed in S2 cells in the presence of Cdc27 dsRNA. This phenotype cannot be observed when the screen is performed without Cdc27 dsRNA.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: cell size is increased, microtubules are uniform or disorganised, cell shape is irregular, and cell number is decreased indicative of a failure in cell cycle progression through G1 to S and G2 to M stages.
    Dp is needed to limit the replication of heterochromatin in nurse cells. Dp is required for nurse cell apoptosis.
    Dp is required for several essential processes during oogenesis, including dorsal-ventral patterning and germline cell cycle control.
    Identification: One of a collection of genes identified with defective larval growth that extend larval life.
    Both Dp and E2f are necessary for viability and mutations in the genes cause lethality at the larval\pupal stage. Dp is required for normal development in both mitotic and endo cycle cells. Mutant phenotypes reveal that both genes promote progression of the cell cycle.
    In vitro binding studies of E2f and Dp to the DNApol-α180 promoter region reveals each of the E2f binding sites plays a distinct role as positive or negative element in the regulation of the DNApol-α180 promoter during development.
    Ectopic expression of E2f together with Dp induces cell proliferation and cell death in the eye.
    E2f transcription factor-induced S phase requires CycE.
    The Dp gene product is preferentially expressed in proliferating cells. Distinct expression patterns of Dp and E2f suggest that the formation of Dp/E2f heterodimers is subject to complex regulatory cues.
    E2f and Dp gene products interact and cooperate to give sequence specific DNA binding and optimal trans-activation.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 66 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(2)49Fk
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0002082
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (264)