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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Fdh
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Formaldehyde dehydrogenase
Annotation Symbol
CG6598
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011768
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Alcohol dehydrogenase (1.1.1.1)
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase (1.1.1.284)
Octanol dehydrogenase (1.1.1.73)
Formaldehyde dehydrogenase (1.2.1.46)
Gene Summary
Formaldehyde dehydrogenase (Fdh) encodes a medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. This enzyme also functions as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase during the nitric oxide metabolism, contributing to visual memory. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Odh, glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase, gfd

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-50
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:10870906..10872381
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (14 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000191653
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P11766
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000191653
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000191653
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in visual learning
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred by curator from GO:0004022
involved_in ethanol oxidation
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR014183
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000191653
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytosol
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000191653
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family. Class-III subfamily. (P46415)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
(1) A primary alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde + NADH (1.1.1.1)
(2) A secondary alcohol + NAD(+) = a ketone + NADH (1.1.1.1)
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione + NAD(P)(+) = S-formylglutathione + NAD(P)H (1.1.1.284)
1-octanol + NAD(+) = 1-octanal + NADH (1.1.1.73)
Predictions / Assertions
(1) A primary alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde + NADH (1.1.1.1)
(2) A secondary alcohol + NAD(+) = a ketone + NADH (1.1.1.1)
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione + NAD(P)(+) = S-formylglutathione + NAD(P)H (1.1.1.284)
Formaldehyde + NAD(+) + H(2)O = formate + NADH (1.2.1.46)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Formaldehyde dehydrogenase (Fdh) encodes a medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. This enzyme also functions as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase during the nitric oxide metabolism, contributing to visual memory. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASES -
Alcohol dehydrogenases are NAD/NADP dependent oxidoreductases that are involved in the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. (Adapted from FBrf0096056.)
OTHER NAD(P)H OXIDOREDUCTASES -
The Other NAD(P)H oxidoreductases is a collection of oxidoreductases that do not fit into any of the other major oxidoreductases acting on NAD(P)H.
OTHER ALDEHYDE OR OXO OXIDOREDUCTASES, NAD OR NADP AS ACCEPTOR -
Enzymes within listed within 'Other aldehyde or oxo oxidoreductases, NAD or NADP as acceptor' do not fit into any of the other major groups.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
(UniProt, P46415)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Odh: Octanol dehydrogenase
The structural gene for octanol dehydrogenase [ODH (EC. 1.1.1.73)], a multimer of 109,000 molecular weight (Sieber, Fox, and Ursprung, 1972, FEBS Lett: 26, 274-76); evidence for tetrameric structure in other Drosophila species (Pipkin, 1969, Genetics 63: 405-18); immunologically unrelated to ADH (Courtright, 1968, DIS 43: 144). Preferred substrates are long-chain primary alcohols, with lesser activity on short-chain and branched-chain primary alcohols; inactive on secondary alcohols (Bremner, Douglas, and Ogonji, 1971, DIS 47: 93-94). Enzyme activity higher in adults than in larvae or pupae (Debec, 1974, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 174: 1-9); mobility also increases from larvae to pupae to adults (Hewitt, 1974, Genetics 77: s30-31). Odh+ not a vital gene; homozygotes for null allele, OdhnNC1, viable and fertile (Voelker, Langley, Leigh-Brown, Ohnishi, Dickson, Montgomery, and Smith, 1980, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 1091-95).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Fdh for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry P46415)

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Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082290
1337
379
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.36 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081767
40.4
379
6.70
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

379 (aa); 80 (kD observed)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Fdh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Fdh transcripts were observed in all stages tested and appear to be abundant throughout the life span of the organism.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Fdh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 11 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Fdh
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Fdh
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 15 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
7 of 15
No
Yes
1  
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1  
5 of 15
No
Yes
1  
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (10)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (11)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 4 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-50
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    86C7-86C7
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP3340EP3340 and P{PZ}tho1&P{PZ}l(3)0462905275
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    86D-86D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (58)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    The effect of various concentrations of ethanol and long-term ethanol exposure on flies carrying unique allele combinations at the Fdh and Aldox-1 loci is studied.

    The effect of environmental ethanol on larval to pupal survival and on the activities of Fdh, Aldox-1, Adh and Gpdh is investigated.

    Activity change of the enzyme due to the influence of ethanol, starvation and ethanol stress is assayed.

    The genomic organisation of the Fdh locus has been characterised.

    Pattern of allele frequency has been studied for seven loci, Aph-1, Est-6, Adh, Fdh, Aldox-1, Gpdh and Mdh1, in wild Indian populations of D.melanogaster : the allelic frequency patterns do not agree with those from temperate region populations.

    No difference in allele fixed in lines selected over 700 generations for high (negative) and low (positive) geotaxis.

    Segmental aneuploids for gene dosage that are heterozygous for Fdh variants are produced and analysed for the purpose of gene localization.

    Allelic frequencies have been determined between European and African populations. African populations show a greater genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles found. Within each geographic group there is a homogeneity of allele frequencies.

    No linkage disequilibrium has been detected between Gpdh, Mdh1, Adh, Hex-C, Est-C or Fdh.

    The structural gene for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH), previously characterised as octanol dehydrogenase, a multimer of 109,000 molecular weight (Sieber, Fox and Ursprung, 1972); evidence for tetrameric structure in other Drosophila species (Pipkin, 1969); immunologically unrelated to ADH (Courtright, 1968). Preferred substrates are long-chain primary alcohols, with lesser activity on short-chain and branched-chain primary alcohols; inactive on secondary alcohols (Bremner et al., 1971). Enzyme activity higher in adults than in larvae or pupae (Debec, 1974); mobility also increases from larvae to pupae to adults (Hewitt, 1974). Fdh+ not a vital gene; homozygotes for null allele, FdhnNC1, viable and fertile (Voelker et al., 1980).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Ursprung.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 65 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Name Synonyms
    Octanol dehydrogenase
    formaldehyde dehydrogenase
    glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase
    octanol dehydrogenase
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0002986
    Datasets (8)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    Study result (8)
    Result
    Result Type
    Title
    Clustering analysis of hemocytes from non-infested third instar larvae
    Clustering analysis of hemocytes from wasp-infested third instar larvae
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 72 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from wasp-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
    References (119)