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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\nmo
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
nemo
Annotation Symbol
CG7892
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011817
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (2.7.11.24)
Gene Snapshot
nemo (nmo) encodes an atypical proline-directed serine/threonine kinase with roles in numerous developmental processes, including ommatidial rotation/planar cell polarity, retinal specification and neuronal function, and circadian clock speed. It regulates the activity of several signal transduction pathways, including BMP, Wnt, and Notch, and is implicated in fly models of neurodegenerative diseases. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
Nlk, adk, Nemo-like kinase, adirondack
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:7,979,046..8,054,147 [+]
Recombination map
3-21
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.24)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ATYPICAL MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES -
Atypical Mitogen-activated protein kinases are proline-directed serine/threonine kinases that share significant sequence homology with the kinase domain of conventional MAPKs. They are not part of the conventional MAPK cascade and differ in key residues of the activation loop. (Adapted from PMID:21372320).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of canonical Wnt signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
protein serine/threonine kinase involved in establishing ommatidial rotation/planar cell polarity, retinal specification and neuronal function, and circadian clock speed - regulates the activity of several signal transduction pathways, including BMP, Wnt, and Notch - implicated in fly models of neurodegenerative diseases
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\nmo or the JBrowse view of Dmel\nmo for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Stage-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during embryogenesis (FBrf0215804); all variants may not be annotated.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0234051.
Gene model reviewed during 6.25
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076754
5131
414
FBtr0076755
3131
414
FBtr0076757
2624
414
FBtr0076756
2421
430
FBtr0076758
2757
430
FBtr0076759
2250
430
FBtr0333223
6235
430
FBtr0474156
2250
439
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
7.6, 7.2, 5.8, 5.4, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076471
46.4
414
7.93
FBpp0076472
46.4
414
7.93
FBpp0076474
46.4
414
7.93
FBpp0076473
48.2
430
7.61
FBpp0076475
48.2
430
7.61
FBpp0076476
48.2
430
7.61
FBpp0305425
48.2
430
7.61
FBpp0423155
49.1
439
7.61
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

414 aa isoforms: nmo-PA, nmo-PB, nmo-PC
430 aa isoforms: nmo-PE, nmo-PF, nmo-PG, nmo-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
477, 434 (aa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\nmo using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (18 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003527
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000622075
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:1201387
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

somatic cell

Comment: zygotic expression in most cells

organism

Comment: extended 3' UTR isoform

wing cell

Comment: 25-30 hr APF; expression is enriched immediately adjacent to wing veins

Additional Descriptive Data
Isoforms of nmo with extended 3' UTRs appear later in embryogenesis. Sequential, phased, 3' UTR lengthening is seen (3' UTR lengthening ocurring in multiple steps during later stages of embryogenesis).
One nmo isoform is expressed in a stripe posterior the morphogenetic furrow. The other is expressed at low levels throughout the disc.
nmo transcripts are expressed in a complex pattern throughout development. Six transcripts are expressed in early embryos, (3.2, 3.6, 4.1, 4.6, 5.4, and 5.8 kb). A 7.2kb transcript appears in late embryos and a 7.6kb transcript is detected in adult heads. The seven transcripts are all developmentally regulated with varying patterns. In general, transcription is highest in embryos, third instar larvae, and pupae.
nmo transcripts are detected close to the morphogenetic furrow in third instar eye discs.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}nmoP1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\nmo in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 41 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of nmo
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of nmo
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal tergite & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL469B
abdominal tergite & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL469B
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta
scutum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4ap-md544
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (13)
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908YC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915058H )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W052U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04Z1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05X6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (10)
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of canonical Wnt signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-21
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:7,979,046..8,054,147 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    66A22-66B3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0721708223&P{EP}Rac2EP3118 and P{lacW}Nmtj1C7
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    66B1-66B2
    66B1-66B2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (35)
    Genomic Clones (41)
    cDNA Clones (144)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: nmo anon- EST:Gibbs3
    Source for merge of: nmo anon-WO0118547.332 anon-WO0140519.256
    Additional comments
    Source for merge of nmo anon- EST:Gibbs3 was sequence comparison ( date:030707 ).
    Source for merge of nmo anon-WO0118547.332 anon-WO0140519.256 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
    Other Comments
    nmo is required in the larval eye disc through most of the first 45[o] of ommatidial rotation to regulate the speed at which the ommatidial precursors move. nmo is required in photoreceptors R1, R6 and R7 for normal orientation.
    When dsRNA constructs are made and transiently transfected into S2 cells in RNAi experiments, spindle abnormalities, centrosome abnormalities, lagging chromatids and a whole range of mitotic abnormalities are seen.
    Overexpressed nmo reduces the levels of arm protein in regions where it is stabilised by wg signaling.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    Area matching Drosophila Nemo gene, Acc. No. U12010.
    Area matching Drosophila EST AA439393 (inverted).
    nmo is required during wing development for wing shape and vein patterning.
    Genetic interactions between nmo and other mutations implicate nmo as an antagonist of wg.
    Complementation group isolated in a screen for dominant enhancers and suppressors of Nact.sev or Nnucl.sev.
    Double mutant analysis suggests that nmo and fz functional synergistically in directing ommatidial rotation.
    "Nemo" is Korean for a four-sided figure.
    The nmo gene is required for the rotation of photoreceptor clusters in the developing eye. Mosaic analysis indicates that nmo acts within the ommatidium, suggesting local autonomy of the determination of rotation. nmo+ function in any photoreceptor cell is sufficient for normal rotation.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 85 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-EST:Gibbs3
    anon-EST:Liang-2.43
    anon-WO0118547.332
    anon-WO0140519.256
    anon-WO0172774.138
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0014365
    • FBgn0019910
    • FBgn0023460
    • FBgn0044612
    • FBgn0046458
    • FBgn0062087
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (199)