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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\AttA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Attacin-A
Annotation Symbol
CG10146
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0012042
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Attacin-A (AttA) encodes an antibacterial peptide with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. It is expressed in the fat body and various epithelia under the regulation of the immune deficiency and, to a lesser extent, Toll pathways. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Attacin, Att, Att-A, att A

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-72
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:14747362..14748215
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (7 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the attacin/sarcotoxin-2 family. (P45884)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Attacin-A (AttA) encodes an antibacterial peptide with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. It is expressed in the fat body and various epithelia under the regulation of the immune deficiency and, to a lesser extent, Toll pathways. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ATTACINS -
Attacins are small, glycine-rich peptides with antibacterial activity. (Adapted from FBrf0241672.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Hemolymph antibacterial protein.
(UniProt, P45884)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\AttA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry P45884)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.40

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087437
790
221
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086567
22.9
221
10.54
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments

Small AttA-derived peptides identified by nano LC-MS/MS: pQVLGGSLTSNPAGGADA, pQVLGGSLTSNPAGGADAR.

External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\AttA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data

Reporter constructs were used to show that expression of AttA is bacterially induced.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
embryonic/larval hemolymph

Comment: infected with M. luteus and E. coli

peptides: QVLGGSLTSNPAGGADAR

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\AttA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 0 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of AttA
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of AttA
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 2 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-72
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    51C1-51C1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}ttvk03617&P{EP}ttvEP765 and P{lacW}Rpn6k00103
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    51A-51B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (3)
    Genomic Clones (26)
    cDNA Clones (24)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: AttA BcDNA:LP05763

      Source for merge of: AttA anon-WO0140519.5

      Additional comments

      Source for merge of AttA anon-WO0140519.5 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

      Other Comments

      Identified as a gene with significant level of mRNA cycling as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated from adult heads harvested over six time points over the course of a day. Shows alteration in expression in a Clk mutant background.

      Ecol\lacZDpt.PR adults are pricked with a sterile needle dipped in culture pellets of various living microorganisms (distinct bacterial strains, fungal spores or hyphae). Pricking results in a low but clearly detectable expression of all antimicrobial genes and these genes are induced above the background level by specific classes of microorganism.

      Genes encoding antibacterial peptides are regulated in a manner distinct from that of Drs, encoding the antifungal peptide.

      Differential display can be applied to a whole organism to identify induced immune genes, the technique has been used to isolate and characterise AttA.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 79 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (23)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      AttA
      (Ahmed-Braimah et al., 2021, Järvelä-Stölting et al., 2021, Kong et al., 2021, Salem Wehbe et al., 2021, Wang et al., 2021, Yamashita et al., 2021, Zhou et al., 2021, Benoit et al., 2020, Delbare et al., 2020, Gilbert et al., 2020, Han et al., 2020, Hanson and Lemaitre, 2020, Karageorgiou et al., 2020, Lim et al., 2020, Shah et al., 2020, Swanson et al., 2020, Tsukada et al., 2020, Vincent et al., 2020, Wang et al., 2020, Araki et al., 2019, Baenas and Wagner, 2019, Chambers et al., 2019, Chen et al., 2019, Hanson et al., 2019, Houtz et al., 2019, Kano and Yagi, 2019, Lin et al., 2019, Maitra et al., 2019, Moskalev et al., 2019, Sanuki et al., 2019, Štětina et al., 2019, Troha and Buchon, 2019, Westfall et al., 2019, Badinloo et al., 2018, Barajas-Azpeleta et al., 2018, Hemphill et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Lin et al., 2018, Mlih et al., 2018, Schretter et al., 2018, Troha et al., 2018, Aw et al., 2017, Bozler et al., 2017, Kenmoku et al., 2017, Kim et al., 2017, Odnokoz et al., 2017, Costechareyre et al., 2016, Jones et al., 2016, Louie et al., 2016, Zhou et al., 2016, Beebe et al., 2015, Chen et al., 2015, Li and Dijkers, 2015, Chen et al., 2014, Engel et al., 2014, Obata et al., 2014, Salazar-Jaramillo et al., 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Varma et al., 2014, Zhu et al., 2014, Clark et al., 2013, Durdevic et al., 2013, Garcia et al., 2013, Gendrin et al., 2013, Jennings, 2013, Short and Lazzaro, 2013, Stefanatos et al., 2013, Telonis-Scott et al., 2013, Yagi et al., 2013, Chakrabarti et al., 2012, Doroszuk et al., 2012, Petersen et al., 2012, Rynes et al., 2012, Vanha-Aho et al., 2012, Wang et al., 2012, Clark et al., 2011, Gerbasi et al., 2011, Marcu et al., 2011, Schmidt et al., 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Smith et al., 2011, Becker et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2010, Huang et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Radyuk et al., 2010, Valanne et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Yagi et al., 2010, Buchon et al., 2009, Feng et al., 2009, Sackton and Clark, 2009, Thevenon et al., 2009, Zhang and Palli, 2009, Carrera et al., 2008, Gordon et al., 2008, Jin et al., 2008, Jin et al., 2008, Kapelnikov et al., 2008, Kleino et al., 2008, Wigby et al., 2008, Busse et al., 2007, Curtis et al., 2007, Dijkers and O'Farrell, 2007, Domanitskaya et al., 2007, Valanne et al., 2007, Waterhouse et al., 2007, Leulier et al., 2006, Ramos et al., 2006, Zraly et al., 2006, Greene et al., 2005, Kim et al., 2005, Kocks et al., 2005, Park et al., 2005, Thoetkiattikul et al., 2005, Wertheim et al., 2005, Lazzaro et al., 2004, Domazet-Loso and Tautz, 2003, Rutschmann et al., 2002, Tauszig-Delamasure et al., 2002)
      AttacinA
      BcDNA:LP05763
      anon-WO0140519.5
      Name Synonyms
      Attacin-A precursor
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0044580
      • FBgn0064916
      Datasets (6)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      Study result (6)
      Result
      Result Type
      Title
      Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 72 h after egg-laying
      Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
      Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
      Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from wasp-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
      Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
      Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
      References (426)