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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\klu
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
klumpfuss
Annotation Symbol
CG12296
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0013469
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
l(3)10052, l(3)09036
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:10,981,171..11,009,188 [-]
Recombination map
3-34
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - zinc finger - early growth response family - involved in determination of the identities of secondary precursor cells within neuroblast lineages in the central nervous system - a genetic cascade involving and specifies the abdominal leucokinergic neurons in the Drosophila CNS
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\klu or the JBrowse view of Dmel\klu for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Stop-codon suppression (UAA) postulated; FBrf0216884.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076247
3870
803
FBtr0330080
3870
818
FBtr0333361
4437
803
FBtr0345346
4792
803
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.9, 4.5 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075976
88.6
803
7.19
FBpp0303113
90.2
818
7.29
FBpp0305553
88.6
803
7.19
FBpp0311501
88.6
803
7.19
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

803 aa isoforms: klu-PA, klu-PC, klu-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\klu using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VQ56
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P42124
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q26263
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:Q94517
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
klu expression never observed in cone cells or bristle groups. During the early stages of interommatidial PCD (24â 28 h APF), adjoining secondary pigment cell and tertiary pigment cell precursors began to show differing levels of klu mRNA; this difference is even more dramatic at stages of maximal PCD (28â 30 h).
klu transcripts are expressed in a complex and dynamic pattern throughout much of larval and imaginal development. The imaginal disc pattern is described in detail. Early in third instar larvae, expression is observed in the prospective wing area of the wing disc. Shortly thereafter, it is restricted to the prospective margin and hinge of the wing. About the same time, expression is observed in the anlagen of the notum and scutellum. Expression is observed in most proneural clusters at or shortly after the time of ac expression. klu expression in these regions precedes the appearance of SOPs and is not continued in the SOPs themselves. Expression in leg discs also starts early in the third instar. The klu expression domain occupies a wedge-like sector encompassing about 1/3 of the circumference of the leg disc. Expression is in rings corresponding to the anlagen of the leg segments. Expression in the antennal and dorsal prothoracic discs also occurs in concentric domains. In eye discs, expression starts behind the morphogenetic furrow and extends through the whole anlage. Expression in the larval brain is restricted to the neuroblasts and the proliferation zone of the optic lobes.
klu transcripts are detected from early stages onward with a peak at 10-12 hours of embryogenesis.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
klu-protein is expressed in the developing larval medulla in lateral neuroblasts adjacent to l(1)sc-positive neuroepithelium and gradually weakened in neuroblasts located in more medial regions. klu-protein is also detected in a small number of ganglion mother cells in the medulla anlage.
klu protein is first detected before the syncytial blastoderm stage. Staining disappears after cellularization. Expression reappears at stage 10 in a subset of neuroblasts and in the procephalic region. klu protein is also expressed in some ganglion mother cells including GMC4-2b.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GAL4}kluG410
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}kluP212
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacW}kluP819
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}klu10052
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\klu in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 33 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 32 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of klu
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of klu
Deletions and Duplications ( 15 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190A1X )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091507T1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0G6J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0G73 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (9)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-34
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:10,981,171..11,009,188 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    68A1-68A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}tnaL6731 and P{PZ}klu09036
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    68A1-68A2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    68A-68A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (20)
    Genomic Clones (37)
    cDNA Clones (54)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: klu l(3)09036
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    klu functions to maintain the identity of type II neuroblasts in the larval brain.
    klu is both required and sufficient for programmed cell death in the pupal retina and is differentially expressed in the cells that choose the life or death cell fate.
    Candidate gene for sex comb tooth number quantitative trait locus.
    Identification: Enhancer trap screen designed to discover genes involved in the cellular aspects of defense mechanisms, as well as in melanotic tumor formation processes linked to blood cell disregulation.
    klu is required for proper specification and differentiation in a variety of cells, including the sensory organ mother cells and those of the distal parts of tarsal segments.
    klu functions to differentiate between the identities of two secondary precursor cells within one neuroblast lineage.
    klu acts to specify the identity of ganglion mother cell GMC4-2b and to make it distinct from GMC4-2a.
    Phenotypic analysis and genetic interaction studies indicate that the klu gene product is involved in at least two steps of bristle development.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    "klumpfuss", meaning "club-foot", is named on the basis of the leg defects found in mutants.
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 49 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010931
    • FBgn0010938
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (139)