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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\shot
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
short stop
Annotation Symbol
CG18076
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0013733
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
short stop (shot) encodes a member of the spectraplakin family of large cytoskeletal linker molecules. It binds both actin and microtubules, as well as scaffold proteins, certain signalling factors and calcium. It plays developmental and maintenance roles in the nervous system, the epidermis, at muscle attachments, the foregut, the wing, tracheae and oocytes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
kakapo, kak, groovin, l(2)k04204, grv
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:13,864,237..13,942,110 [-]
Recombination map
2-68
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Summary (Interactive Fly)
cytoskeletal cross-linker protein - expressed in the tendons and is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation - required for sensory and motor axons to reach their targets in the Drosophila embryo
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
22
Number of Unique Polypeptides
21

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\shot or the JBrowse view of Dmel\shot for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087619
18014
5501
FBtr0304850
17845
5408
FBtr0304851
13661
4100
FBtr0304852
17813
5462
FBtr0304853
17148
5434
FBtr0087616
17791
5390
FBtr0087620
16907
5160
FBtr0087618
17114
5201
FBtr0087617
17776
5385
FBtr0087621
27842
8805
FBtr0273222
17746
5375
FBtr0273223
17725
5368
FBtr0273224
17731
5370
FBtr0273225
17969
5486
FBtr0273226
17948
5479
FBtr0301591
17785
5388
FBtr0301592
18008
5499
FBtr0301593
17801
5458
FBtr0301964
16892
5155
FBtr0304847
17729
5434
FBtr0304848
18016
5463
FBtr0304849
17803
5394
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
17.6, 15.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086745
627.7
5501
6.54
FBpp0293390
617.5
5408
6.38
FBpp0293391
465.0
4100
6.25
FBpp0293392
622.6
5462
6.45
FBpp0293393
619.3
5434
6.39
FBpp0086742
615.3
5390
6.38
FBpp0086746
589.0
5160
6.41
FBpp0086744
594.6
5201
6.52
FBpp0086743
615.2
5385
6.36
FBpp0086747
989.5
8805
5.41
FBpp0271730
613.7
5375
6.34
FBpp0271731
613.1
5368
6.35
FBpp0271732
613.6
5370
6.32
FBpp0271733
626.1
5486
6.51
FBpp0271734
625.5
5479
6.52
FBpp0290806
615.4
5388
6.37
FBpp0290807
627.7
5499
6.53
FBpp0290808
622.1
5458
6.42
FBpp0291176
588.9
5155
6.38
FBpp0293387
619.3
5434
6.39
FBpp0293388
622.2
5463
6.40
FBpp0293389
616.2
5394
6.40
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

5434 aa isoforms: shot-PAD, shot-PX
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
5201 (aa)
Comments
shot protein shows regions of similarity to three distinct vertebrate cytoskeletal-related protein families. The amino-terminal portion resembles the amino-terminal domain of plakin family members. The central portion has 22 repeats of 105-113 amino acids that are similar to the spectrin-like repeats found in dystrophin, α-actinin, and spectrin. The carboxy terminal domain shows similarity to the Gar2/GAR22 family of cytoskeletal-related proteins.
The shot protein shows similarily to three distinct classes of proteins. The amino-terminal portion resembles the plakin class of cytoskeletal cross-linker proteins. The central portion of the protein consists of 22 109aa dystrophin-like repeats. The carboxy-terminal part of the protein has similarity to Gas2, an actin-associated protein expressed in growth-arrested cultured cells.
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\shot using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (42 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:kra; FB:FBgn0250753
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:A1Z6P3
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8T3Y0
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002048
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR003108
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
Biological Process (24 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (17 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002753757
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002753891
(assigned by GO_Central )
colocalizes_with intermediate filament
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002753757
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002753757
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
shot is detected in all epidermal cells and in tendon cells in embryonic stage 14-15. At stage 15, shot expression is also observed in the denticles. It is present in row 2 cells as well as along the posterior of row 1 cells leading to an apparent accumulation on both sides of the row 1-2 interface. Similar accumulation is observed at the row 4-5 border. In older embryos, shot is anteriorly enriched in row 2 and 5 cells. The anterior bias is specific to denticle field cells and is not observed in smooth field cells. shot accumulated in the denticle itself in addition to localizing along the 1-2 and 4-5 boundaries.
shot protein localizes to the apical side of the ectodermal domain of the keyhole structure of the developing embryonic proventriculus.
The shot protein colocalizes with microtubules in mature tendon cells of third instar larvae. There is a focus of staining overlapping a compact microtubule array near the muscle-tendon junction. This unique subcellular structure extends to the cuticle attachment site.
shot protein is detected in developing axons starting in embryonic stage 12. It can be detected in the intersegmental nerve and in the cortical regions of the neuronal cell bodies of chordotonal and dorsal cluster sensory neurons. The antibody used for this analysis does not recognize the short isoforms of the protein.
shot protein is expressed in specific epidermal cells that attach to muscles, linking the muscles to the exoskeleton. It is strongly expressed in the same cells that express high levels of PS integrins. Strong expression is also observed in the proventriculus and the pharynx. Weak expression is observed in the PNS in the scolopale of the chordotonal organs.
shot protein is apparent from stage 14 of embryogenesis. In the last stages of muscle development, shot protein is found at high levels in muscle-bound tendon cells where it is concentrated at the surface, presumably along the membrane. Lower levels are observed in epidermal cells and chordotonal organs.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}OK307
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}shotNP3076
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain cell body rind

Comment: punctate expression in adult brain cortex

adult gnathal ganglion | restricted

Comment: part of adult subesophageal ganglion

adult brain

Comment: localised expression throughout adult brain, possibly glial sheath

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\shot in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 84 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 28 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of shot
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of shot
Deletions and Duplications ( 15 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
axon & motor neuron | embryonic stage
axon & pCC neuron
centrosome & ovary | germ-line clone
chordotonal organ & axon | lateral
dendrite & motor neuron | embryonic stage
egg chamber & follicle cell | somatic clone
microtubule & ovary | germ-line clone
mushroom body & axon
synapse & neuromuscular junction
synapse & neuromuscular junction (with Df(2R)MK1)
tendon cell & actin filament, with Scer\GAL4how-24B, Scer\GAL4sr-md710
tendon cell & microtubule, with Scer\GAL4how-24B, Scer\GAL4sr-md710
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (9)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (17)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190005 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150002 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W001G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0019 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G000Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 7 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-68
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:13,864,237..13,942,110 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    50C6-50C9
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)03105k16702&P{lacW}fl(2)dk16105 and P{lacW}shotk03010
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    50C6-50C10
    50C11-50C12
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 50C9--10 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    50C3-50C6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    50C3-50C4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    50B1-50B2
    50C11--12 50C11--15 50C14--15 50C9--10 50C9--12
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Maps 1.5 units on either side of c.
    Located on 2R.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (58)
    Genomic Clones (41)
    cDNA Clones (100)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: shot CG18076
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: kak grv
    Source for merge of: kak l(2)CA4
    Source for merge of: shot l(2)k04204 l(2)k15606 l(2)k05821 l(2)k05434 l(2)k10821
    Source for merge of: shot CG18637
    Additional comments
    Source for merge of shot CG18637 was sequence comparison ( date:001104 ).
    Other Comments
    dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. shot RNAi causes routing defects, dorsal overextension, and a reduction in lateral branching of dorsally extended primary dendrites of class I da neurons.
    Association of the shot protein with microtubules requires Eb1.
    shot is required for ectodermal cell movement during development of the proventriculus.
    shot organizes microtubules during oocyte specification.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    Identification: 3 alleles of shot have been identified in a screen to isolate genes required for normal neuronal morphogenesis in larval mushroom body neurons.
    shot recruits Eb1/Apc and promotes microtubule assembly at the muscle-tendon junction.
    The F-actin- and microtubule-binding domains of shot are required in the same molecule for axon extension.
    shot is required for sensory and motor axons to reach their targets in the embryo.
    shot has a function in dendritic development.
    shot is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension, fasciculation and guidance of their axons.
    'groovin' was initially defined as an antigen recognised by a monoclonal antibody. The antibody identified a shot cDNA and immunoprecipitates the shot product, although the 'groovin' antibody still stains embryos deficient for the shot gene.
    Mutants isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying genes affecting disc morphology.
    shot is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation in the developing embryo.
    Identification: Genetic screen for mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones. 19 "kopupu" alleles have been isolated.
    Mutations may affect cell adhesion or muscle function at hatching.
    Identification: Genetic screen for autosomal mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones.
    Identification: Genetic screen for autosomal mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones. 5 alleles of shot have been isolated.
    Mutations in 12 complementation groups differentially affect lateral chordotonal axon growth, fasciculation or ventral orientation. Mutations in axe, gui and shot result in shorter, but fasciculated and ventrally directed axon bundles.
    shot is expressed in the ectoderm at the future muscle attachment sites and may be required for apodeme differentiation to enable the correct targeting by the approaching myotubule.
    Antisense experiments suggest that shot is important in a correct apodeme function to induce appropriate muscle pattern.
    The 'groovin' antigen was identified in a monoclonal antibody screen and is expressed along the segmental groove of developing embryos.
    Identification: Screen for mutations affecting neuromuscular connectivity, using an antibody to Fas2 to see motoneurons and axons.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 173 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (34)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CG18637
    l(2)CA4
    l(2)k15606
    shortstop/kakapo
    shot
    (Baskar et al., 2019, Adikes et al., 2018, Campbell et al., 2018, Hassan et al., 2018, Hernández de Madrid and Casanova, 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Mortensen et al., 2018, Takeda et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Bonneaud et al., 2017, Bussmann and Storkebaum, 2017, Qu et al., 2017, Carvajal-Gonzalez et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Nashchekin et al., 2016, Voelzmann et al., 2016, Beaven et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Booth et al., 2014, Lye et al., 2014, Perkins and Tanentzapf, 2014, Westholm et al., 2014, Wolfram et al., 2014, Eisman and Kaufman, 2013, Huelsmann et al., 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Valakh et al., 2013, Alves-Silva et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Mackay et al., 2012, Murray et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Chang et al., 2011, Miller et al., 2011, Carmon et al., 2010, Dilks and DiNardo, 2010, Gilsohn and Volk, 2010, Lowery et al., 2010, Müller et al., 2010, Sánchez-Soriano et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Bottenberg et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Jiang and Edgar, 2009, Alves-Silva et al., 2008, Chen et al., 2008, Allen et al., 2007, Bakal et al., 2007, Beltran et al., 2007, Christensen and Cook, 2007.5.8, Christensen et al., 2007.10.29, Gregory et al., 2007, Kaltenbach et al., 2007, Lee et al., 2007, Magalhaes et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Roper, 2007, Kulkarni et al., 2006, Parrish et al., 2006, Sandmann et al., 2006, Bokel et al., 2005, Philipps et al., 2004, Gao and Bogert, 2003)
    Name Synonyms
    Short-stop
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0014183
    • FBgn0015972
    • FBgn0020296
    • FBgn0021837
    • FBgn0021937
    • FBgn0022152
    • FBgn0022170
    • FBgn0022208
    • FBgn0022230
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (285)