kakapo, kak, groovin, l(2)k04204, grv
cytoskeletal cross-linker protein - expressed in the tendons and is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation - required for sensory and motor axons to reach their targets in the Drosophila embryo
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
A non-AUG start codon may be used for translation of one or more transcripts of this gene; based on the presence of conserved protein signatures within the 5' UTR without an in-frame AUG (FBrf0243886).
17.6, 15.4 (northern blot)
shot protein shows regions of similarity to three distinct vertebrate cytoskeletal-related protein families. The amino-terminal portion resembles the amino-terminal domain of plakin family members. The central portion has 22 repeats of 105-113 amino acids that are similar to the spectrin-like repeats found in dystrophin, α-actinin, and spectrin. The carboxy terminal domain shows similarity to the Gar2/GAR22 family of cytoskeletal-related proteins.
The shot protein shows similarily to three distinct classes of proteins. The amino-terminal portion resembles the plakin class of cytoskeletal cross-linker proteins. The central portion of the protein consists of 22 109aa dystrophin-like repeats. The carboxy-terminal part of the protein has similarity to Gas2, an actin-associated protein expressed in growth-arrested cultured cells.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\shot using the Feature Mapper tool.
shot is detected in all epidermal cells and in tendon cells in embryonic stage 14-15. At stage 15, shot expression is also observed in the denticles. It is present in row 2 cells as well as along the posterior of row 1 cells leading to an apparent accumulation on both sides of the row 1-2 interface. Similar accumulation is observed at the row 4-5 border. In older embryos, shot is anteriorly enriched in row 2 and 5 cells. The anterior bias is specific to denticle field cells and is not observed in smooth field cells. shot accumulated in the denticle itself in addition to localizing along the 1-2 and 4-5 boundaries.
shot protein localizes to the apical side of the ectodermal domain of the keyhole structure of the developing embryonic proventriculus.
The shot protein colocalizes with microtubules in mature tendon cells of third instar larvae. There is a focus of staining overlapping a compact microtubule array near the muscle-tendon junction. This unique subcellular structure extends to the cuticle attachment site.
shot protein is detected in developing axons starting in embryonic stage 12. It can be detected in the intersegmental nerve and in the cortical regions of the neuronal cell bodies of chordotonal and dorsal cluster sensory neurons. The antibody used for this analysis does not recognize the short isoforms of the protein.
shot protein is expressed in specific epidermal cells that attach to muscles, linking the muscles to the exoskeleton. It is strongly expressed in the same cells that express high levels of PS integrins. Strong expression is also observed in the proventriculus and the pharynx. Weak expression is observed in the PNS in the scolopale of the chordotonal organs.
shot protein is apparent from stage 14 of embryogenesis. In the last stages of muscle development, shot protein is found at high levels in muscle-bound tendon cells where it is concentrated at the surface, presumably along the membrane. Lower levels are observed in epidermal cells and chordotonal organs.
Comment: punctate expression in adult brain cortex
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\shot in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. shot RNAi causes routing defects, dorsal overextension, and a reduction in lateral branching of dorsally extended primary dendrites of class I da neurons.
shot is required for ectodermal cell movement during development of the proventriculus.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
Identification: 3 alleles of shot have been identified in a screen to isolate genes required for normal neuronal morphogenesis in larval mushroom body neurons.
The F-actin- and microtubule-binding domains of shot are required in the same molecule for axon extension.
shot is required for sensory and motor axons to reach their targets in the embryo.
shot is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension, fasciculation and guidance of their axons.
'groovin' was initially defined as an antigen recognised by a monoclonal antibody. The antibody identified a shot cDNA and immunoprecipitates the shot product, although the 'groovin' antibody still stains embryos deficient for the shot gene.
Mutants isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying genes affecting disc morphology.
shot is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation in the developing embryo.
Identification: Genetic screen for mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones. 19 "kopupu" alleles have been isolated.
Mutations may affect cell adhesion or muscle function at hatching.
Identification: Genetic screen for autosomal mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones.
Identification: Genetic screen for autosomal mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones. 5 alleles of shot have been isolated.
Mutations in 12 complementation groups differentially affect lateral chordotonal axon growth, fasciculation or ventral orientation. Mutations in axe, gui and shot result in shorter, but fasciculated and ventrally directed axon bundles.
shot is expressed in the ectoderm at the future muscle attachment sites and may be required for apodeme differentiation to enable the correct targeting by the approaching myotubule.
Antisense experiments suggest that shot is important in a correct apodeme function to induce appropriate muscle pattern.
The 'groovin' antigen was identified in a monoclonal antibody screen and is expressed along the segmental groove of developing embryos.