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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\imd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
immune deficiency
Annotation Symbol
CG5576
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0013983
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
immune deficiency (imd) encodes a canonic component of the immune deficiency pathway, which regulates the antibacterial response and other less characterized cellular processes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
BG5
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:18,409,796..18,413,599 [-]
Recombination map
2-85
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Imd Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The immune deficiency (Imd) pathway primarily mediates the humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Activation of the Imd pathway by diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the release of the NFκB-like factor Rel from auto-inhibition and its translocation into the nucleus to activate the transcription of antimicrobial peptides. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Essential for the imd/NF-kappa-B (Imd) humoral and epithelial immune response to Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:7568155, PubMed:8808632, PubMed:11266367, PubMed:12433364). Functions as an adapter protein that transduces immunity signals from the activation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) by bacterial infection to the Imd signaling pathway (PubMed:7568155, PubMed:11269502, PubMed:11703941, PubMed:12433364, PubMed:20122400). Binding of diaminopimelic acid-type (DAP-type) bacterial peptidoglycans (PGN) causes multimerization or clustering of PGRP receptors which activate the Imd cascade probably by recruiting imd, Fadd and Dredd to the receptor complex (PubMed:11269502, PubMed:12433364, PubMed:20122400). Once in proximity, Dredd cleaves imd in a Fadd-dependent manner to enable its association and activation by the ubiquitin E3-ligase DIAP2 (PubMed:20122400). The activated form of imd recruits and activates the Tab2/Tak1 complex thus acting upstream of the IKK complex (ird5 and key) to activate Rel and induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides such as Def, Dpt and Cecropin (PubMed:7568155, PubMed:8808632, PubMed:11703941, PubMed:12433364, PubMed:19837371, PubMed:20122400, PubMed:11266367). Also able to inhibit the viral replication of the Sindbis virus (PubMed:19763182). Involved in promoting the polyubiquitination and stability of faf which in turn, regulates the Imd pathway by controlling imd polyubiquitination and/or stability; they may therefore form a regulatory feedback mechanism within the Imd pathway (PubMed:23919485). Not required for the cuticle melanization immune response to bacterial challenge (PubMed:11266367).
(UniProt, Q7K4Z4)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
a death domain protein involved in signal transduction during antibacterial immune response
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\imd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\imd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086725
1320
273
FBtr0345891
1518
273
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085904
29.9
273
6.16
FBpp0311815
29.9
273
6.16
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

273 aa isoforms: imd-PA, imd-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Fadd (PubMed:12433364). Interacts with faf (PubMed:23919485). Interacts with Rpt6 (PubMed:25027767). Interacts (via N-terminus) with Usp2 (via N-terminus) (PubMed:25027767). Interacts (via N-terminus) with scny (via C-terminus) (PubMed:19837371). The N-terminally cleaved form interacts (via IAP-Binding motif) with Diap2 (via the BIR2 and BIR3 domains); the interaction promotes ubiquitination by Diap2 and the E2 ligases Uev1A, ben and Ubc5 (PubMed:20122400).
(UniProt, Q7K4Z4)
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylated. Caspase-mediated cleavage is required for activation and function; upon immune stimulation, peptidoglycans (PGN) induce proteolytic cleavage by caspases such as Dredd leading to its ubiquitination. Ubiquitination is essential for function; after PGN-induced caspase-mediated cleavage the N-terminally cleaved imd interacts with the E3 ligase Diap2 leading to polyubiquitination of 'Lys-63'-linked chains involving the E2 complex members Uev1A, ben and Ubc5 (PubMed:20122400). These 'Lys-63' chains stabilize imd and may serve as scaffolds to recruit and activate the key kinases TAK1 and IKK (PubMed:20122400). Under normal unchallenged conditions, scny deubiquitinates the activating 'Lys-63'-linked chains to prevent signal transduction and this is also likely to promote the polyubiquitination of 'Lys-48'-linked chains which act as 'tags' for proteosomal degradation (PubMed:19837371). Usp2 then deubiquitinates the 'Lys-48'-linked chains and this promotes degradation of imd probably by allowing interaction between imd and the proteasome (PubMed:25027767).
(UniProt, Q7K4Z4)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\imd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Fadd; FB:FBgn0038928
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9V3B4
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:pirk; FB:FBgn0034647
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\imd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of imd
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of imd
Deletions and Duplications ( 8 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D86 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091509QV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0LVT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0M3M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0ZSF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with Fadd (PubMed:12433364). Interacts with faf (PubMed:23919485). Interacts with Rpt6 (PubMed:25027767). Interacts (via N-terminus) with Usp2 (via N-terminus) (PubMed:25027767). Interacts (via N-terminus) with scny (via C-terminus) (PubMed:19837371). The N-terminally cleaved form interacts (via IAP-Binding motif) with Diap2 (via the BIR2 and BIR3 domains); the interaction promotes ubiquitination by Diap2 and the E2 ligases Uev1A, ben and Ubc5 (PubMed:20122400).
    (UniProt, Q7K4Z4 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Imd Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The immune deficiency (Imd) pathway primarily mediates the humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Activation of the Imd pathway by diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the release of the NFκB-like factor Rel from auto-inhibition and its translocation into the nucleus to activate the transcription of antimicrobial peptides. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-85
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:18,409,796..18,413,599 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    55C8-55C8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sbb04525&P{EP}EP1081EP1081 and P{lacW}l(2)08770k04808
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (17)
    Genomic Clones (11)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (11)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: imd shadok
    Source for identity of: BG5 CG5576
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: imd BG5
    Source for merge of: imd anon-WO0172774.166
    Additional comments
    Source for identity of BG5 CG5576 was sequence comparison ( date:000327 ).
    Source for merge of imd anon-WO0172774.166 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
    Other Comments
    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a specific decrease in AttA activity in response to heat-killed E.coli when assayed in S2 cells. imd functions upstream of Iap2 in the fat body, as shown by the ability of Iap2 dsRNA to inhibit transcriptional activation of Dpt by imd.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    imd regulates the antibacterial response.
    Mutants show no detectable induction of Dpt, CecA1 and CecA2. Attacin levels are reduced compared to wild type and Drs induction is normal.
    Identified as a gene with significant level of mRNA cycling as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated from adult heads harvested over six time points over the course of a day.
    Mutants exhibit a constitutive Dif nuclear localisation.
    Mutations that affect the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides dramatically lower the resistance of flies to infection.
    The imd locus was identified by a mutation which abrogates (in larvae) or reduces (in adults) the induction of humoral immune response genes. Failure of induction results in mortality due to sepsis after challenge with live bacteria.
    When challenged with bacteria mutants show a lower survival rate that wild type flies. In contrast to the antibacterial peptides the antifungal peptide Drs remains inducible in a homozygous imd mutant background. These results point to the existance of two different pathways leading to the expression of two types of target genes, encoding either the antibacterial peptides or the antifungal peptide Drs.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-WO0172774.166
    imd
    (Chen et al., 2019, La Marca et al., 2019, Palmer et al., 2019, Parvy et al., 2019, Wang et al., 2019, Westfall et al., 2019, Badinloo et al., 2018, Goto et al., 2018, Harris et al., 2018, Hori et al., 2018, Lin et al., 2018, Schretter et al., 2018, Shahrestani et al., 2018, Westfall et al., 2018, Chen et al., 2017, Christesen et al., 2017, Keesey et al., 2017, Kenmoku et al., 2017, Kounatidis et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Chatterjee et al., 2016, Costechareyre et al., 2016, Lamiable et al., 2016, Morris et al., 2016, Shiratsuchi et al., 2016, Arefin et al., 2015, Clemmons et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Lim et al., 2015, Momiuchi et al., 2015, Sansone et al., 2015, Vedanayagam and Garrigan, 2015, Verma and Tapadia, 2015, Wu et al., 2015, Xia et al., 2015, Xiao et al., 2015, Chambers et al., 2014, Chtarbanova et al., 2014, Kim et al., 2014, Péan and Dionne, 2014, Taylor et al., 2014, Verma and Tapadia, 2014, Aparicio et al., 2013, Christofi and Apidianakis, 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Nelson et al., 2013, Pukklay et al., 2013, Bangi et al., 2012, Chinchore et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Lemaitre et al., 2012, Neyen et al., 2012, Taillebourg et al., 2012, Tsuzuki et al., 2012, Verma and Tapadia, 2012, Akhouayri et al., 2011, Galac and Lazzaro, 2011, Glittenberg et al., 2011, Hyrsl et al., 2011, Limmer et al., 2011, Marcu et al., 2011, Zhao et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2010, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Kong et al., 2010, Kong et al., 2010, Paquette et al., 2010, Righi et al., 2010, Tang et al., 2010, Valanne et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010, Avadhanula et al., 2009, Costa et al., 2009, Cronin et al., 2009, Ha et al., 2009, Markovic et al., 2009, Zsindely et al., 2009, Gordon et al., 2008, Jin et al., 2008, Lee and Edery, 2008, Ramsden et al., 2008, Sekiya et al., 2008, Tan et al., 2008, Vonkavaara et al., 2008, Yano et al., 2008, Busse et al., 2007, Buszczak et al., 2007, Ferrandon et al., 2007, Gregory et al., 2007, Hallem et al., 2007, Huh et al., 2007, Kurata, 2007, Lesch et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Minidorff et al., 2007, Nehme et al., 2007, Pham et al., 2007, Sackton et al., 2007, Taylor and Kimbrell, 2007, Vonkavaara et al., 2007, Wagner and Roeder, 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Kaneko et al., 2006, Kim et al., 2006, Leulier et al., 2006, Liehl et al., 2006, Kim et al., 2005, Mace et al., 2005, Mace et al., 2005, McGettigan et al., 2005, Pal and Wu, 2005, Thoetkiattikul et al., 2005, Zerofsky et al., 2005, Lazzaro et al., 2004, Lau et al., 2003, Yajima et al., 2003, Naitza et al., 2002, Rutschmann et al., 2002, Tingvall et al., 2001)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0034344
    • FBgn0046434
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (382)