Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Interacts with Fadd (PubMed:12433364). Interacts with faf (PubMed:23919485). Interacts with Rpt6 (PubMed:25027767). Interacts (via N-terminus) with Usp2 (via N-terminus) (PubMed:25027767). Interacts (via N-terminus) with scny (via C-terminus) (PubMed:19837371). The N-terminally cleaved form interacts (via IAP-Binding motif) with Diap2 (via the BIR2 and BIR3 domains); the interaction promotes ubiquitination by Diap2 and the E2 ligases Uev1A, ben and Ubc5 (PubMed:20122400).
Caspase-mediated cleavage is required for activation and function; upon immune stimulation, peptidoglycans (PGN) induce proteolytic cleavage by caspases such as Dredd leading to its ubiquitination.
Ubiquitination is essential for function; after PGN-induced caspase-mediated cleavage the N-terminally cleaved imd interacts with the E3 ligase Diap2 leading to polyubiquitination of 'Lys-63'-linked chains involving the E2 complex members Uev1A, ben and Ubc5 (PubMed:20122400). These 'Lys-63' chains stabilize imd and may serve as scaffolds to recruit and activate the key kinases TAK1 and IKK (PubMed:20122400). Under normal unchallenged conditions, scny deubiquitinates the activating 'Lys-63'-linked chains to prevent signal transduction and this is also likely to promote the polyubiquitination of 'Lys-48'-linked chains which act as 'tags' for proteosomal degradation (PubMed:19837371). Usp2 then deubiquitinates the 'Lys-48'-linked chains and this promotes degradation of imd probably by allowing interaction between imd and the proteasome (PubMed:25027767).
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\imd using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\imd in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a specific decrease in AttA activity in response to heat-killed E.coli when assayed in S2 cells. imd functions upstream of Iap2 in the fat body, as shown by the ability of Iap2 dsRNA to inhibit transcriptional activation of Dpt by imd.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
Identified as a gene with significant level of mRNA cycling as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated from adult heads harvested over six time points over the course of a day.
Mutations that affect the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides dramatically lower the resistance of flies to infection.
The imd locus was identified by a mutation which abrogates (in larvae) or reduces (in adults) the induction of humoral immune response genes. Failure of induction results in mortality due to sepsis after challenge with live bacteria.
When challenged with bacteria mutants show a lower survival rate that wild type flies. In contrast to the antibacterial peptides the antifungal peptide Drs remains inducible in a homozygous imd mutant background. These results point to the existance of two different pathways leading to the expression of two types of target genes, encoding either the antibacterial peptides or the antifungal peptide Drs.